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Islamic fundamentalism

A disputed term, widely used in the US and to a lesser extent in Britain to denote any movement to favour strict observance of the teachings of the Qur'an and the Shari'a (Islamic Law). On ...

Religious Fundamentalism

Religious Fundamentalism   Reference library

Carsten Paludan-Müller

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
1,247 words

...Jews followed as well as systematic destruction or transformations of their places of worship. In the context of Islam and in particular Islamic fundamentalism, there are problems similar to those of earlier Christianity (e.g., the nineteenth-century debate over the fossil record of early humans) and today’s Christian Fundamentalism in accommodating the idea of evolution. Thus, Islamic fundamentalism tends to reject or to ignore pre-Islamic cultural heritage. A violent example of such rejection is the destruction of the fifteen-hundred-year-old Bamiyan Buddhas...

Islamic Civilization

Islamic Civilization   Reference library

John L. Meloy, Ian Straughn, and Donald Whitcomb

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
6,279 words

...been excavated and identified as mosques solely on the strength of a mihrab. In the desert any line of stones with a central semicircle (or even prominent stone) also has been labeled a mosque; their dates have been estimated from the earliest years of Islam (in the Negev) to evidence of Wahhabi fundamentalism in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. One of the most problematic elements of mosques is the orientation of the qibla wall. In theory, this wall should be oriented perpendicular to the axis leading toward Mecca; worshipers lined in rows with this...

Nationalism

Nationalism   Reference library

Carsten Paludan-Müller and Margarita Díaz-Andreu

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
2,667 words

...their host communities. • The Web-based, instant media connectivity carrying words and images across the globe from one cultural frame of reference to another in real time. Nationalism today, as a consequence, has many faces and cannot always be discerned from religious fundamentalism. The original development of nationalism in western Europe was the outcome of a long process of identity-building around the territorial states and their transformations into nation-states. With the abolishment of the absolutist monarch as the personified uniting symbol and essence...

Tunisia

Tunisia  

Tunisians have traded democratic freedoms for economic and political stabilityTunisia can be divided into four main geographical regions. The northern one-third of the country consists of spurs of ...
Biblical Archaeology

Biblical Archaeology   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
4,319 words

...events [i.e., the call of Abraham , the promise of the Land of Canaan, the conquest under Joshua, etc.] actually occurred” ( God Who Acts: Biblical Theology as Recital , London, 1952 , p. 126). To many, especially in Europe, Wright's position appeared dangerously close to fundamentalism, even more so than Albright's historicism. By the mid-late 1960s, however, the biblical theology movement had waned, and the stage was set for American Syro-Palestinian archaeology to move toward independent status. Nevertheless, up until that time much of postwar American...

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