You are looking at 1-20 of 32 entries  for:

  • Regional and Area Studies x
clear all

View:

Overview

India

Subject: History

The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growth India's vast territory can be divided into three main regions ...

India–United States Relations

India–United States Relations   Reference library

Neil DeVotta

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
6,300 words

...Contemporary India . 2d ed., edited by Neil DeVotta, pp. 95–122. (Boulder, Colo., 2010). Kapur, S. Paul. “India and the United States from World War II to the Present: A Relationship Transformed.” In India’s Foreign Policy: Retrospect and Prospect , edited by Sumit Ganguly, pp. 251–274. (New Delhi, India, 2010). Kirk, Jason A. “ India’s Season of Discontent: U.S-India Relations through the Prism of Obama’s ‘Af-Pak’ Policy, Year One. ” Asian Affairs: An American Review 37 (2010): 147–166. Kux, Dennis. Estranged Democracies: India and the United...

Asian settlers

Asian settlers   Quick reference

A Dictionary of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...from China ( see Sino–African relations ) and India. There have been a number of rounds of Asian settlement. In one, a relatively small number of Asian traders involved in the transport of goods such as spices settled in coastal regions, most notably in parts of East Africa, such as what is now known as Mombasa and Zanzibar—a process accelerated in the nineteenth century with the arrival of Gujarati traders from India. In another, British colonial governments imported indentured labourers from India to work on construction projects. For example, it is...

Freedom Charter

Freedom Charter (1955)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...Congress ( ANC ) in South Africa. The Freedom Charter was based on the ‘freedom demands’ of ordinary people that were collected by ANC volunteers in 1955 . These were then synthesized with the views of the Congress Alliance—which consisted of the ANC, the South African India Congress, the Coloured People’s Congress, the South African Congress of Trade Unions, and the Congress of Democrats—by ANC leaders including Z. K. Matthews, Lionel Berstein, Ethel Drus, Ruth First, and Alan Lipman. Officially adopted at a Congress of the People later the same...

Bandung Conference

Bandung Conference   Quick reference

A Dictionary of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...meeting on such a large scale and was mainly aimed at promoting cultural and economic cooperation and presenting a united front against colonial and neocolonial imperialism. The conference was organized by Indonesia, Myanmar (then Burma), Pakistan, Sri Lanka (then Ceylon), and India. It was attended by delegates from twenty-nine countries that at the time represented more than half of the world’s population. African states in attendance included Ethiopia, Ghana (then the Gold Coast), Liberia, Sudan, and two North African nations, Egypt and Libya. The major...

BRICS

BRICS   Quick reference

A Dictionary of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...BRICS An acronym for five major emerging economies—Brazil, Russia, India, China ( see Sino–African relations ), and South Africa—coined in 2001 by Jim O’Neil , who at the time was the chairman of Goldman Sachs Asset Management. The term has been controversial, because South Africa has a significantly lower GDP and global economic influence than the other four states, and Brazil and South Africa have suffered lower levels of economic growth since 2001 . However, despite this the governments of the countries concerned have embraced the label and held a...

Rhodes, Cecil

Rhodes, Cecil (1853–1902)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...the Cape Parliament and his Central Search Association merged with London-based Exploring Company Ltd to form the British South Africa Company ( BSAC ). Just a few months later, the BSAC received a Royal Charter from Queen Victoria that was modelled on that of the British East India Company . Under this framework, the BSAC was expected to develop European settlements in Africa, and the company evolved into a politico-commercial entity that empowered Rhodes to dictate law and order. As part of this mission, profits from diamond and gold production were...

Kashmir

Kashmir   Reference library

Neil DeVotta

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,026 words

...sought to dislodge the infiltrators (making it the third war fought over Kashmir, and the fourth between India and Pakistan ). The Clinton Administration demanded that Pakistan withdraw its forces from Kargil and adamantly refused to link the withdrawal to the negotiation of a deal with India on Kashmir. India had long resented America ’s unwillingness to unreservedly condemn Pakistan ’s support for terrorist organizations operating in India -administered Kashmir (even while quietly appreciating America ’s relative silence on the gross human...

Pakistan–United States Relations

Pakistan–United States Relations   Reference library

Charles H. Kennedy

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,456 words

.... However, Pakistan ’s initiation of the 1965 war with India (Operation Gibraltar) exposed Pakistan ’s use of US military equipment (ostensibly provided for defense against communist aggression) against India . Accordingly, the United States suspended military aid to Pakistan in 1965 . Of course, this rationale could be seen as a pretense to explain America ’s changing policy toward India following the death of Nehru; it would not be seemly for the United States , while courting India , to remain in a special relationship with Pakistan . In any...

Nonproliferation, Nuclear

Nonproliferation, Nuclear   Reference library

Zachary S. Davis

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,497 words

...goods or services. Together, the NPT, the IAEA, and the NSG perpetuate the rules and practices upon which the global nuclear order operates. Not all countries have signed the NPT, and a few have signed but have not complied. India did not sign the treaty and detonated what it called a “peaceful nuclear explosion” in 1974 . India tested again in 1998 , prompting its longtime rival Pakistan , also a nonsignatory, to test as well. North Korea , which had joined the NPT in 1985 but withdrew in 2003 after years of violating the treaty, tested in 2006...

Federalism

Federalism   Reference library

Richard P. Nathan

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...joined together. The Swiss federation, founded in 1848 , has twenty-three cantons (the equivalent of states in the United States ). For over one hundred years, it has balanced the interests of three major ethnic and language groups (German, French, and Italian). Federalism in India and Canada likewise seeks to reconcile the interests of different ethnic and language groups, although the tensions in these countries have, at various times, caused serious problems for the federalism bargain. Among political scientists, there are debates about the nature of...

Islam

Islam   Reference library

Michael Gilsenan

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,312 words

...Muslims, the umma , is in principle open to whoever submits to God, the meaning of Islam. The language of prayer and scripture is Arabic, but most Muslims today are, in fact, non-Arab. In Asia there are majority or significant Islamic communities in Afghanistan , Pakistan , India , Bangladesh , Malaysia , and Indonesia , with minorities in the southern Philippines , the successor states of Soviet Central Asia, and western China ; in Africa, major populations are found in the West and Saharan zones from Senegal through northern Nigeria to the ...

United Nations

United Nations   Reference library

Ramesh Thakur

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,485 words

... Washington was responsible for his reelection several months earlier than necessary in 2001 , before the administration was upset by his criticisms of the Iraq War and the oil-for-food scandal. In 2006 , the key difference between South Korea ’s successful Ban Ki-moon and India ’s second-placed Shashi Tharoor was US support for Ban, who accordingly assumed office in 2007 . In other words, if the Charter embeds largely Western, liberal values as the UN’s guiding principles, US structural dominance in the organization is also embedded in its primary...

King, Martin Luther, Jr.

King, Martin Luther, Jr. (1929)   Reference library

James M. SoRelle

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,260 words

...Theological Seminary in Chester, Pennsylvania . While at Crozer, he developed a fascination with the philosophy of Mohandas Gandhi, who successfully employed passive resistance and civil disobedience ( satyagraha ) in his campaign to break the grip of British imperialism in India . King earned a bachelor of divinity degree in 1951 . He continued his education at Boston University’s Graduate School of Theology and received a PhD in systemic theology in 1955 . In Boston , he met Coretta Scott, whom he married in 1953 . The union would produce four...

Reproductive Politics

Reproductive Politics   Reference library

Rosalind Pollack Petchesky

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,039 words

...these movements were not only or primarily an outgrowth of what is sometimes disparagingly termed “Western feminism.” Rather, they have developed in many countries and regions of the global South, in ways that reflect specific local conditions and policies: for example, in India , to oppose government-sponsored campaigns imposing targets for sterilization and hormonal implants; in the Philippines and much of Latin America , to oppose church-influenced policies prohibiting safe, legal contraception and abortion; in Bangladesh and Pakistan , to oppose...

World Trade Organization

World Trade Organization   Reference library

David H. Lumsdaine and Stephen L. S. Smith

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,740 words

...protests at the WTO’s 1999 Seattle ministerial meeting. But empirical data do not support these contentions, in general. Trade and economic growth go hand in hand with one another and with poverty reduction. Poor countries often prevail in WTO-adjudicated trade disputes. India and China , and various developing country coalitions are important in WTO negotiations. The unexpected failure of the 1999 WTO ministerial talks in Seattle presaged the difficulties the Doha Round later encountered; but the ruckus in the streets had little to do with why...

Afghanistan

Afghanistan   Reference library

William Maley

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,107 words

...Modern-day Afghanistan , a landlocked state in Southwest Asia, has been a major preoccupation of American foreign policy for more than three decades. It emerged in the nineteenth century as a buffer between British India and the expanding Russian empire. Given the diversity of ethnic groups within its borders (Pashtuns, Tajiks, Uzbeks, Hazaras, and many others), it has never been a “nation-state.” The overwhelming majority of Afghanistan ’s estimated 20 million citizens are Muslims, and they are more prone to bond with those who share common...

Capitalism

Capitalism   Reference library

Meghnad Desai

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,792 words

...are instrumental to generating profits. The necessary conditions are profits in a system of private property with contractual rights. Although money and markets have existed at least since the time of the ancient Phoenicians, and so-phisticated credit markets have existed in India and China for centuries, the identification of the rise of modern capitalism with Western Europe is beyond dispute. Why capitalism should have originated there, rather than in the more prosperous and economically sophisticated (as of 1350) regions of Arabia or Asia, on the...

Fundamentalism

Fundamentalism   Reference library

Benjamin Beit-Hallahmi

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,607 words

...alone can interpret the scriptures. Some may describe this as totalitarian, because religious law is applied to all aspects of life. Fundamentalism is inclined to suppress the rights of other religious or secular forces in society, and even to organize violence against them. In India , Hindu fundamentalist movements have attacked Muslims and burned mosques. In Israel , Jewish fundamentalists have demanded religious-based laws and practices (closing down all public transportation on the Sabbath, for example) and some have violently attacked Palestinians. In the...

Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia   Reference library

David Ottaway

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,265 words

...to Bush’s efforts, in 2007 , to relaunch the Israeli-Palestinian peace process by brokering the so-called Mecca agreement favoring the radical Hamas faction. For his part, King Abdullah pointedly turned elsewhere in search of allies, arms, and oil markets—notably China , India , and Turkey . He also cut off negotiations with US oil companies for a privileged stake in the Kingdom’s vast oil and gas fields. In addition, the Saudi King strongly opposed Bush’s call on Saudi Arabia to take the lead in promoting democracy in the Arab world. The deep chill...

Third Parties

Third Parties   Reference library

Paul Allen Beck

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,178 words

...the major parties stumble. [ See also Democratic Party ; Elections and Electoral Behavior ; Republican Party ; and Tea Party . ] Bibliography Chhibber, Pradeep, and Ken Kollman. The Formation of National Party Systems: Federalism and Party Competition in Britain, Canada, India, and the United States . (Princeton, N.J., 2004). Disch, Lisa Jane. The Tyranny of the Two-Party System . (New York, 2002). Gillespie, J. David. Challengers to Duopoly: Why Third Parties Matter in American Two-Party Politics . (Columbia, S.C., 2011). Mazmanian, Daniel A. Third...

View: