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Overview

India

Subject: History

The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growth India's vast territory can be divided into three main regions ...

Cashews

Cashews   Reference library

Smith Andrew F.

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...America. The Portuguese introduced cashews to East Africa, Indonesia, and India, where they quickly spread to the Malabar coast and southwestern India. The Spanish introduced cashews to their colonies in the Caribbean, Central America, and the Philippines. Cashews were first imported into the United States shortly after the Civil War. Although their origins are in the New World, cashews are not a major crop in any country of the Americas. In the early twenty-first century, India led the world in production. Raw or roasted, salted or not, cashews are...

Pepper, Black

Pepper, Black   Reference library

Fred Czarra

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Gray pepper is most often a ground mix of black and white peppercorns. Throughout history, pepper has been the most widely used spice. Pepper entered written Western history during the Roman Empire. The Romans established trade routes to India through Alexandria and the Arabian Peninsula. After Portugal's navigations to India in the sixteenth century, and for the next two centuries, pepper became a source of economic competition between the Portuguese, the English, and the Dutch. Pepper was available in the United States in the colonial period, but it was only...

Indian American Food

Indian American Food   Reference library

Krishnendu Ray and Colleen Taylor Sen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2013

...power. Power is often displayed literally as foods acquire height, breadth, and aromatic range. In the case of India, court cuisine is one of rich curries using ghee, cardamom, clove, saffron, and other ingredients and represented quintessentially by kebabs, koftas , and biriyanis . It is typically the cuisine of Delhi in northern India or Hyderabad in the Deccan, called Mughlai food after the Moguls (Mughals), that reflects these qualities. In India in the twenty-first century Mughlai cuisine is one of the four sources of fine dining, which also include...

Eggplants

Eggplants   Reference library

Maura Carlin Officer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2013

...name, petonciano , may shed some light on this debate as petonciano translates to “fart.” It is virtually universally accepted that the eggplant was first cultivated in India some four to five thousand years ago and was likely cultivated for ornamental purposes because of its attractive leaves and flowers. It is also probable that eggplant was first consumed as food in India. From India, eggplant was most likely introduced to China and then to the Middle East by Arab traders in the seventh century CE, and possibly as early as the fourth century CE. The...

Pickles, Sweet

Pickles, Sweet   Reference library

Ruth Tobias

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2013

...has been preserved. Known the world over in one form or another—for pickling is an ancient solution to the problems of food storage and spoilage, one that has had a lasting impact on virtually all foodways—sweet pickles reach their peak in condiments like mango chutney from India, northern Italy's mostarda di frutta , and umeboshi , the exquisitely sour Japanese pickled plum. In the United States, pickles are primarily the products of central European tradition. Pickling begins with vinegar or brine and just about anything deemed edible; American Indians...

New Orleans Syrup

New Orleans Syrup   Reference library

Jennifer Minnick

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2013

...product is most commonly known by the brand name Steen's 100% Pure Cane Syrup or ribbon cane syrup. In southern states it became known as New Orleans syrup because of the large quantities produced in the New Orleans area. The sugarcane plant used for syrup production came from India by way of the Caribbean islands. It was first introduced to Louisiana in the mid-eighteenth century and thrives there in the high temperatures and constant moisture required for cultivation. Farmers often raised patches of sugarcane and took their harvests to local sugar mills for...

Hominy Grits

Hominy Grits   Reference library

Mark H. Zanger

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2013

...technology. Thus some of the first maize used to replace sorghum in polentas in Europe and Africa was not nixtamalized, and caused the niacin-deficiency disease pellagra. Pellagra was identified among poor farmers in the American South in 1902 and persists in some parts of India. Nevertheless there is a fairly clear line from Native American sofkey (a hot drink of southern tribes now often made with “instant grits”) and Cherokee/Appalachian whole-grain hominy (pozole in Mexico and the southwestern states) through African American “hog and hominy” dishes,...

Arugula

Arugula   Reference library

Mark H. Zanger

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2013

...and wilts quickly once picked, it required the revival of small-scale truck farming and urban “farmer's markets” as well as a renewed interest in Mediterranean cooking by top American chefs to make it a commercial crop. Arugula has been naturalized in various climates from India (where the seeds and their oil are the object) to northern Europe. It is described in early British herbals as an aphrodisiac. From the Latin name came the French “roquette,’ which was Anglicized as “rocket” or “rocket salad.” As rocket salad it was imported to the British...

English Muffins

English Muffins   Reference library

Barry Popik

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...bread. Some early muffin recipes produced what we now call “English” muffins. Hannah Glasse's The Art of Cookery Made Plain and Easy ( 1747 ) contains a muffin recipe of flour, yeast, salt, and water. The name “English muffin” has been cited in print since at least 1795 (“India and English muffins”), although these might have been misnamed crumpets. Recipes for “Muffins and English Muffins” were given in an 1851 cookbook. One of the earliest recipes for familiar “English muffins” is in De Witt's Connecticut Cook Book ( 1871 ): “Mix two pounds of...

Soy Sauce

Soy Sauce   Reference library

Andrew F. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2013

...the soybean and grain mixture is injected with a yeast mold and salt is added. Following a period of aging, the mixture is strained and bottled for sale. Soybeans ( Glycine max ) originated in tropical Asia and in prehistoric times were widely disseminated to China, Japan, India, and Southeast Asia. Fermented soybean products were common throughout Asia. British sailors, traders, and colonial administrators encountered soy sauce in the late seventeenth century. By the seventeenth century, Japan had specialized in manufacturing soy sauce and has been the...

Distillation

Distillation   Reference library

Bob Pastorio

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...a mixture to separate the more volatile from the less volatile parts, then cooling and condensing the vapor to make a purer substance. The word “distill” comes from the Latin destillare , meaning “to drip.” There are hints about oils and “essences” in books of the Ayurvedas from India ca. 3000 BCE, and distilled rice or barley liquor was consumed there as early as 800 BCE. Egyptians distilled oils for perfumes and medicines as early as 2500 BCE. Chinese alchemists used distillation in approximately the sixth century BCE. These peoples used distillation...

Chickpeas

Chickpeas   Reference library

Josephine Bacon

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2013

...When ground into flour and mixed with olive oil and tahini, it is known as hummus, a Middle Eastern dish that has become a universally popular appetizer. In Mexican cooking, chickpeas are added to stews, such as ropas viejas and cocido , and they are used similarly in Spain, India, and France. Common uses in the United States are in soups, vegetable combinations, or as a component of salads. The chickpea is highly nutritious—containing about 20 percent protein, 5 percent fat, and 55 percent carbohydrate, as well as malic and oxalic acid—and it has become a...

Coca-Cola

Coca-Cola   Reference library

Mark Pendergrast

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2013

...in bottling plants in Colombia in 1993 to 1995 . The company also faced critics who claimed that its bottling plants depleted already scarce water resources in India, forcing the 2004 closure of the Plachimida plant. The company denied culpability in the Colombian murders, with courts agreeing. In India, Coca-Cola attempted to replace water directly into aquifers while pointing out that India's water problems stemmed mostly from poor farming practices and overpopulation. Under CEOs Isdell and Kent, the company also stepped up projects to support...

Okra

Okra   Reference library

Andrew F. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2013

...of the Domestic Encyclopedia ( 1821 ) includes the first published recipe with okra as an ingredient. Mary Randolph's Virginia House-wife ( 1824 ) offers recipes using okra: “Ocra and Tomatoes” calls for stewing sliced okra with tomatoes, butter, and onion, and “Gumbs, A West India Dish,” calls for cooking whole pods “in a little water” and serving them with melted butter. The word “gumbo” or “gombo” is another African name for okra. In New Orleans it was applied to both the vegetable and the complex Creole stew made with it. Gumbos frequently contained okra...

Randolph, Mary

Randolph, Mary (1762–1828)   Reference library

Karen Hess

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...traditional and humble Virginia fare, such as Turnip Tops, boiled with bacon in the Virginia style, Rice Journey, or Johnny Cake, and Cat-fish Soup. Perhaps even more significantly, she published early recipes for a number of products indigenous to Africa, such as Gumbs—A West India Dish, Ochra Soup, and Ocra and Tomatoes, all recipes for okra, as well as one for Field Peas, a general term for black-eyed peas, and many other related ones from Africa. Some of these recipes clearly came from African cooks. An interesting fortuitous section contains a number of...

Stills

Stills   Reference library

Bob Pastorio

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Two types of stills are used for making alcoholic beverages. The pot still appeared approximately five thousand years ago in India. The column still is less than two hundred years old. Stills were originally tools in two basic human desires: to get rich and to live forever. Just as alchemists tried to transmute base metals into gold, they also tried to transmute plant materials into cure-alls. Scented oils for medicinal use and perfumes made by distillation were the results. The most basic still consists of three parts: a vessel in which to boil a liquid;...

Taco Bell

Taco Bell   Reference library

Andrew F. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...also owns KFC and Pizza Hut restaurants. Today, Taco Bell is the nation's leading Mexican-style fast food restaurant chain, with more than $4.9 billion in systemwide sales in its 6,400 restaurants in the United States. The company opened outlets in Spain and Cyprus in 2009 , India in 2010 , and the United Kingdom in 2011 . [ See also Advertising ; Fast Food ; Mexican American Food ; Take-Out Food .] bibliography Baldwin, Debra Lee . Taco Titan: The Glen Bell Story . Arlington, Tex.: Summit, 1999. Smith, Andrew F. “Tacos, Enchiladas and Refried Beans:...

Hot Toddies

Hot Toddies   Reference library

Ruth Tobias

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...drinks reflect the climate of their birthplace; indeed, toddies may even be defined by their usefulness in countering the effects of extreme temperature. The cool version has its origins in the tapped and fermented sap of certain tropical palms, for which British colonialists in India developed a taste and a name, toddy, derived from the Hindi word tārī. The word traveled from the outposts of the British Empire to sultry plantation-era America, where Dixie gentlemen adopted it for their own combination of rum, sugar or molasses, and nutmeg, which was mixed with...

Carrots

Carrots   Reference library

Cathy K. Kaufman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...dispersal, possibly via the Greeks, is uncertain, but there is some evidence that colorful central Asian varieties were cultivated in the Hellenistic Mediterranean, becoming extinct after Rome's fall. The vegetable was spread (or was reintroduced) to the Middle East, Europe, India, and China by the Arabs, starting in the eleventh century. The Dutch crossed the old Afghani varieties in the late seventeenth century, creating the brilliant orange root that is associated with most modern carrots, botanically subgrouped as D. carota sativus . Adding to the...

Cucumbers

Cucumbers   Reference library

Cathy K. Kaufman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...The cucumber, Cucumis sativus , is a subtropical annual originating in India. Domesticated by the seventh century bce , the cucumber soon spread to China and the ancient Mediterranean world. Galen ascribed diuretic properties to cucumbers but cautioned that overindulgence produced a “wretched juice that is the cause of malignant fevers.” The Romans spread the cucumber through the empire; the plant thrived in Mediterranean areas. Seeds have been found at Roman sites in Britain, although archaeologists debate whether cucumbers were a luxury import or...

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