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Overview

India

Subject: History

The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growth India's vast territory can be divided into three main regions ...

Stilwell, Joseph

Stilwell, Joseph (1883–1946)   Reference library

G. Kurt Piehler

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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2013

...China–Burma–India theater in 1942 . Allotted minimal resources, Stilwell pressed Chinese leader Chiang Kai-shek to build an effective military force to counter Japanese advances in China and Burma. His relationship with Chiang soured, however, because of his caustic manner (hence his nickname “Vinegar Joe”) and Chiang's unwillingness to reform the corrupt and poorly led Chinese armies. Stilwell proved unable to use Chinese troops to halt the Japanese conquest of northern Burma in 1942 , which cut the only viable land link between China and India. Two years...

Boston Tea Party

Boston Tea Party   Reference library

Benjamin L. Carp

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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...in 1769–1770 a deadly famine struck Bengal, claiming the lives of an estimated 1.2 million people. Speculation in East India Company stock touched off a worldwide banking crisis in 1772 . The company had also imported more tea than it could sell, and in 1773 , 17.5 million pounds of it were sitting in its warehouses. By the summer of that year, the company found itself unable to pay its debts. Parliament agreed to bail out the East India Company, but it also consolidated its control over the company's affairs. It passed the Tea Act on 10 May 1773 , which...

LeMay, Curtis E.

LeMay, Curtis E. (1906–1990)   Reference library

Richard G. Davis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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2013

...it to England. LeMay increased bombing accuracy by discontinuing evasive action during bombing and substituted straight, level approaches, resulting in no increase in casualties. By June 1944 , he commanded almost five hundred heavy bombers. After transferring to the China–Burma–India theater in August 1944 , he next transferred to Twenty-first Bomber Command in Guam. In March 1945 , he abandoned daylight attacks, stripped his B-29s of unnecessary weight, and began a campaign of night firebombing that damaged numerous Japanese cities. This campaign was a...

Johnson, Lyndon B.

Johnson, Lyndon B. (1908–1973)   Reference library

Thomas A. Schwartz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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...policies. Johnson took a great deal of interest in India's food shortage of 1965 , insisting on a “short tether” for food aid by tying such aid to India's economic performance. Johnson's stringent approach to food aid—he insisted that India invest more of its own resources into agricultural production and that food aid be solicited from other countries to spread the burden—helped him win congressional support for the assistance. His approach may also have helped spur the so-called green revolution in India, which helped prevent future disastrous famines. But...

Missionary Movements

Missionary Movements   Reference library

Ian Tyrrell

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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...aid of a permanent agent. Rise and Expansion.  The practical extension of this work had to wait, for the most part, until after the War of 1812 had ended. The first American missionaries went to India in 1812 , partly because the LMS already had a foothold there. But war with Britain had just broken out, and ABCFM workers were almost entirely gagged by East India Company officials suspicious of the possible political motives of the Americans. One of the American party, Adoniram Judson , defected from the ABCFM ranks to work nominally under the (English)...

Group of Seven Conferences

Group of Seven Conferences   Reference library

Susan Ariel Aaronson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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...markets, from membership. In 1999 , G8 countries arranged a Group of Twenty ( G20 ) system, intended to address this issue. Organized in three summits, the G22 meeting in 1998 and G33 meetings in 1999 , the first official meeting added Argentina, Australia, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, the Republic of Korea, and Turkey. The European Union also gained representation through its Council president and the European Central Bank. It also began to coordinate with International Monetary Fund and the World Bank,...

Camp David Accords

Camp David Accords   Reference library

Margaret M. Manchester

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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2013

...Memoirs of a President . Toronto: Bantam Books, 1982. Eisenberg, Laura Zittrain , and Neil Caplan . Negotiating Arab–Israeli Peace: Patterns, Problems, Possibilities . Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2010. Haqqi, Anwarul Haque . West Asia since Camp David . Delhi, India: Mittal Publications, 1988. Quandt, William B. Peace Process: American Diplomacy and the Arab–Israeli Conflict since 1967 . Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001. Schulze, Kirsten E. The Arab–Israeli Conflict . New York: Pearson Longman, 2008. Margaret M....

United States Foreign Relations

United States Foreign Relations   Reference library

Ryan Irwin, Mark Beeson, David Mickler, Alan McPherson, Britta H. Crandall, Russell Crandall, Yufan Hao, Fraser Cameron, Andrew J. Rotter, Ali Ansari, Rory Miller, and David Foglesong

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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2013

...perspective on where the transatlantic allies agree and differ. Fraser Cameron India Formal relations between the United States and India are of relatively recent origin, but Americans have long been interested in South Asia. The two nations began with oddly divergent political trajectories. In 1757 , at Plassey, Robert Clive, in command of the army of the British East India Company, routed Indian forces, and he subsequently reduced French and Dutch presences in India as well, thereby establishing company dominance over vast portions of what was called...

Afghanistan War (SINCE 2001)

Afghanistan War (SINCE 2001)   Reference library

Michael J. Williams

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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...the wake of World War II the British could no longer afford the empire, and the rebellion in India by Mohandas Gandhi and his supporters made rule there untenable. India was granted independence in 1947 and was partitioned into two states, a Muslim-majority state called Pakistan and a Hindu-majority state called India. This was against Gandhi's wishes, but Mohammed Ali Jinnah , his Muslim counterpart in the independence movement, believed that in a greater India the Muslim population would be subjugated to the Hindus. What followed the partition was one...

Nixon, Richard M.

Nixon, Richard M. (1913–1994)   Reference library

Robert Rakove

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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...a chilly relationship with India. He viewed Pakistan as a loyal ally, and Pakistan became a key intermediary to the People's Republic of China in the final months of 1970 . In 1971 , as the Pakistani military began a brutal crackdown against an independence movement in the country's province of East Pakistan (what subsequently became Bangladesh, geographically distant from the rest of Pakistan), Nixon and Kissinger stood by Pakistan, even as the U.S. consulate in Dhaka sent heartrending descriptions of the violence. India, deluged with East Pakistani...

Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, Comprehensive

Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, Comprehensive   Reference library

Jonathan A. Kolieb

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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...that the forty-four countries that in 1996 were known to have nuclear technology—these are listed in Annex 2 of the treaty—must sign and ratify it before it becomes binding. By April 2012 , eight of these so-called Annex 2 states had not ratified the treaty: China, Egypt, India, Iran, Israel, North Korea, Pakistan, and the United States. Nevertheless, during the 1990s the five major nuclear powers—the United States, Russia, China, France, and the United Kingdom—all announced unilateral moratoria on nuclear testing, and these have remained in place. In ...

Colonial Era, U.S. Military and Diplomatic Affairs during the

Colonial Era, U.S. Military and Diplomatic Affairs during the   Reference library

Jeremy Black

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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...India, Joseph-François Dupleix, the governor of the main French base at Pondicherry from 1742 , followed an expansionist and interventionist policy. In a parallel with North American geopolitics, this policy entailed an interaction with Indian potentates in which the French, having proved their prowess, sought to profit from the situation, while at the same time they served the purposes of Indian allies. As in North America, however, one could also stress the alien character of French expansion and the discontinuities and disruption that it caused. In India,...

Trade and Tariffs and U.S. Diplomacy and War

Trade and Tariffs and U.S. Diplomacy and War   Reference library

Alfred E. Eckes

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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...trade sanctions to influence policy in the mother country. The Boston Tea Party of 16 December 1773 , when a mob dumped 342 chests of tea into the harbor, is a case in point. The Boston crowd preferred higher-priced smuggled tea to the cheap but taxed tea of Britain's East India Company. Certainly the incident was an early example of the high-profile trade disputes that marred relations with the mother country before and after the Revolution. During the Confederation period ( 1781–1789 ), trade tensions simmered. Britain refused to sign a commercial...

Carter, Jimmy

Carter, Jimmy   Reference library

Scott Kaufman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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...initiatives related to his long-term plans for the nation and the world. A second difficulty was that policies sometimes interfered with each other. Carter had pledged to stop the spread of atomic technology, but he regarded the U.S. relationship with India as important. Thus despite India's refusal to sign the 1968 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, the president offered New Delhi fuel for an atomic power plant. Carter's commitments to human rights and arms control risked jeopardizing U.S. relations with repressive but strategically important...

Defense Contractors, Private

Defense Contractors, Private   Reference library

Robert Mandel

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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...before the emergence of the nation-state through the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 , mercenaries accompanied the armies of Alexander the Great in the fourth century bce , mercenaries worked for feudal lords in the Hundred Years’ War in the fourteenth century, and the East India Company paid for its own private army in the seventeenth century. During the American Revolution of 1775–1783 , the Continental army used private contractors for food, medicine, transportation, arms, and intelligence, and England used Hessian mercenaries in opposition. Although...

Nuclear Weapons and Strategy

Nuclear Weapons and Strategy   Reference library

Lawrence Freedman, Timothy J. Lynch, George Bunn, Timothy J. Lynch, Joseph M. Siracusa, and Joseph M. Siracusa

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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...Egypt, Japan, South Africa (which actually possessed six weapons), Sweden, and Taiwan. But there is still plenty to worry about: the nine members of the nuclear weapons club in the early twenty-first century—the United States, Russia, the United Kingdom, France, China, Israel, India, Pakistan, and North Korea—possess altogether some twenty-seven thousand operational nuclear weapons of various types, and at least another fifteen countries have on hand enough highly enriched uranium for a nuclear weapon. Nuclear proliferation remains urgent not just because of...

Obama, Barack

Obama, Barack (1961)   Reference library

Robert S. Singh

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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...“post-American,” his prescriptions for foreign-policy “renewal” relied heavily on the acceptance that a post-American world had emerged by the time of his election. In part, this reflected long-term trends that saw the inexorable rise of other major powers—China, Russia, Brazil, India, Turkey—that made it more difficult for Washington to exert a primacy that, after the end of the Cold War, had appeared unassailable. Partly, though, this also stemmed from American vulnerabilities and missteps that together curtailed the material bases of U.S. power: the growth...

Defense Industry

Defense Industry   Reference library

Richard A. Bitzinger

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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...in large part by this empowered and energized U.S. arms industry—defense sectors in western Europe and the Soviet Union also expanded in an attempt to keep pace. At the same time, arms manufacturing, like a weed, spread to other parts of the world, such as China, India, Israel, and South Korea. After the Cold War.  Oddly enough, the end of the Cold War did not significantly affect the American military–industrial complex. In the absence of a large-scale, existential threat to the United States, the defense industry has not only survived, but...

Religion, Influence of, on U.S. Diplomacy

Religion, Influence of, on U.S. Diplomacy   Reference library

Andrew Preston

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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...Ribuffo, Leo P. “Religion in the History of U.S. Foreign Policy.” In The Influence of Faith: Religious Groups and U.S. Foreign Policy , edited by Elliott Abrams , pp. 1–27. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2001. Rotter, Andrew J. Comrades at Odds: The United States and India, 1947–1964 . Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2000. Andrew...

Revolutionary War (1775–1783)

Revolutionary War (1775–1783)   Reference library

Fred Anderson, Fred Anderson, James A. Henretta, Stephen E. Patterson, Paul J. Sanborn, and Benjamin L. Carp

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

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2013

...had not seeds of imperial conflict, planted by the Seven Years’ War, borne fruit. The Tea Crisis and the Dissolution of Empire, 1773–1775.  British army and naval forces, together with the East India Company's private army, had seized France's East Indian trading stations during the war; thereafter, the company opportunistically gained control of northeastern India. The costs of government and defense, however, outran the company's revenues, and by 1773 it faced bankruptcy. This would wreck British financial markets, but the Treasury had no funds to bail...

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