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Overview

India

Subject: History

The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growth India's vast territory can be divided into three main regions ...

India-China Relations

India-China Relations   Reference library

J. Mohan MALIK

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...India’s, and China receives three times more foreign investment than India ($74.7 billion for China versus $23 billion for India in 2008 ) (Hiscock, 2008 ). China’s dramatic economic progress evokes envy, admiration, and a desire for emulation among Indians, who lament that whether China practices Communism (under Mao) or capitalism (post-Mao), it always does it better than India. Obviously, India has a lot of catching up to do in the economic sphere. Besides, the bulk of Indian exports to China consists of iron ore and other raw materials, while India...

Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence

Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence   Reference library

Geoffrey C. GUNN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...India as the “Panchsheel,” back to December 1953–April 1954 when complex negotiations took place in Beijing between China and India regarding China’s invasion of Tibet in 1950 , an act that exacerbated age-old territorial issues between the two Asian giants. India had been one of the first countries to recognize the People’s Republic of China ( PRC ), and now Beijing sought India’s recognition of China’s suzerainty (dominion) over Tibet. The Five Principles were formally written into the preface of the Agreement between the PRC and the Republic of India...

Xuanzang

Xuanzang (602?–664)   Reference library

Ding-hwa HSIEH

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...he began to learn Sanskrit and decided to go to India to study Buddhism. Paper cutout of Xuanzang (602–664), a monk during the Tang dynasty who endured great troubles as he traveled to India to retrieve Buddhist scriptures. His adventures were the basis of the famous Chinese novel Journey to the West . Xuanzang sneaked out of the Tang capital of Chang’an in 629 after the imperial court refused his petition to travel westward. He crossed the Gobi Desert and took the Silk Roads route via central Asia to India. Having endured numerous hardships and escaped...

Tibetan Uprising of 1959

Tibetan Uprising of 1959   Reference library

Alex McKAY

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...fourteenth Dalai Lama (b. 1935 ), Tibetan spiritual and temporal leader, was forced to flee into exile in India. Since then China has continued to rule Tibet by military force, and the Dalai Lama, who was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1989 , remains leader of the Tibetan government-in-exile in northern India. Events of 1950–1958 In January 1950 , when India formally recognized the new Communist government in Beijing, China informed India of its plans to peacefully “liberate” Tibet from its traditional monastic rulers and from foreign powers. To...

Stilwell, Joseph

Stilwell, Joseph (1883–1946)   Reference library

G. Kurt Piehler

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...China–Burma–India theater in 1942 . Allotted minimal resources, Stilwell pressed Chinese leader Chiang Kai-shek to build an effective military force to counter Japanese advances in China and Burma. His relationship with Chiang soured, however, because of his caustic manner (hence his nickname “Vinegar Joe”) and Chiang's unwillingness to reform the corrupt and poorly led Chinese armies. Stilwell proved unable to use Chinese troops to halt the Japanese conquest of northern Burma in 1942 , which cut the only viable land link between China and India. Two years...

Boston Tea Party

Boston Tea Party   Reference library

Benjamin L. Carp

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Military and Diplomatic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...in 1769–1770 a deadly famine struck Bengal, claiming the lives of an estimated 1.2 million people. Speculation in East India Company stock touched off a worldwide banking crisis in 1772 . The company had also imported more tea than it could sell, and in 1773 , 17.5 million pounds of it were sitting in its warehouses. By the summer of that year, the company found itself unable to pay its debts. Parliament agreed to bail out the East India Company, but it also consolidated its control over the company's affairs. It passed the Tea Act on 10 May 1773 , which...

STILWELL, Joseph

STILWELL, Joseph (1883–1946)   Reference library

Thomas P. Dolan

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...a new proposal was made. General Stilwell’s operations officer, Lieutenant Colonel Frank D. Merrill , recommended building a road from Ledo, India, to Burma, connecting with the old Burma Road, which had been built in 1937–1938 , to provide a land supply route from India to China and Burma for support of the Allied soldiers who were fighting in the north Burma region. The connection of the road from Ledo, India, through northern Burma, would permit shipment of supplies to Kunming, China. In late 1944 , barely two years after Stilwell accepted...

Kumarajiva

Kumarajiva (344–413 ce)   Reference library

Nirmal DASS

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...means, “a youthful soul,” or “eternally youthful.” Kumarajiva ( 344–413 ce ) was born in Kucha, in China’s present-day Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. His mother, Jiva, is thought to have been the daughter of the king of Kucha. Kumarajiva’s father is thought to have been from India and to have converted to Buddhism and come to Kucha to participate in its thriving Buddhist community. Scholars do not know what connection Kumarajiva continued to have with his father, although Kumarajiva’s mother had him educated at the local monastery, where he excelled in...

Opium Trade

Opium Trade   Reference library

Man-houng LIN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...sores, and dysentery, among other supposed uses. Opium Imports Intensify From the seventeenth century to the early eighteenth century the Portuguese were the most habitual importers of the opium from India. In 1757 English merchants began to sell Indian opium to China. In 1773 the British East India Company, reaping further the benefits of India’s colonization, exerted influence on the trade, levying a tax on merchants. Overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia played important roles in forwarding Indian opium to China’s various coastal harbors other than...

Pakistan-China Relations

Pakistan-China Relations   Reference library

Urvashi ANEJA

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...areas of Pakistan. They signed their first trade agreement in 1963 , and, in the years that followed, diplomatic exchanges increased significantly. Their strategic partnership was initially driven by the mutual need to counter the Soviet Union and India, and China supported Pakistan in its two wars against India in 1965 and 1971 with both military and economic assistance. The military alliance led further to the creation of a Joint Committee for Economy, Trade, and Technology in 1982 , and in the late 1980s China began discussing the possible sales of...

ZHENG He

ZHENG He (1371–1433)   Reference library

Charles C. KOLB

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...ultimately made seven voyages: ▪ First voyage ( 1405–1407 ) to Champa (a kingdom in South Vietnam), Java, Malacca, Sumatra, Ceylon, Cochin, and Calicut (southwest coast of India) ▪ Second voyage ( 1407–1409 ) to Champa, Java, Siam, Sumatra, and Calicut ▪ Third voyage ( 1409–1411 ) to Champa, Calicut, Coimbatore (southern India), and Puttanpur (western India) ▪ Fourth voyage ( 1412–1415 ) to Champa and Calicut, Hormuz (Persian Gulf), the Maldives, and Sumatra ▪ Fifth voyage ( 1416–1419 ) to Champa and Calicut, the Maldives, Hormuz,...

Potala Palace

Potala Palace   Reference library

Michael KOWALEWSKI

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...since 1642 , when the unfinished building was consecrated. It was built by the fifth Dalai Lama, Ngawang Lozang Gyamtsho ( 1617–1682 ), to represent the cosmic mountain abode of the bodhisattva (deity) of compassion, Chenrezi, who is believed to dwell on Potala Mountain in south India and to be embodied in the Dalai Lamas. The Red Hill, 130 meters above Lhasa and already sacred to Chenrezi, was chosen as the site. The Potala was also built as a fortress, thus expressing its dual religious and political function. Distant view of Potala Palace, Lhasa, Tibet. The...

Tibet (Xizang) Autonomous Region

Tibet (Xizang) Autonomous Region (2007)   Reference library

Alex McKAY

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...around 130,000 Tibetans live in exile in India and elsewhere, estimates of the Tibetan-speaking population of China range between 2 and 5 million. Although the degree to which Tibet was a part of China in earlier eras is disputed, Tibet certainly has been a part of China since the Chinese Communist invasion in 1950 and exists today only in the much-reduced area of the TAR. A Tibetan government-in-exile, headed by the Dalai Lama (the spiritual and temporal leader of the Tibetan people), has been established in India, and significant Tibetan exile communities...

Cartography

Cartography   Reference library

Richard J. SMITH

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...Human Events and Travel Routes [within and without] the Nine Border Areas under Heaven, 1644 ). This expansive work acknowledges the existence of Europe, Africa, the Middle East, and India, and gestures toward mathematical accuracy by providing longitudinal lines and degrees, which do not, however, correlate well with specific locations. Yet the Middle East and India are represented primarily by cartouches (ornate or ornamental frames), and Africa, which appears only about one-tenth the size of China, hangs down on the western side of Cao’s map as if it...

Táng Dynasty

Táng Dynasty (618–907 ce)   Reference library

Kerry Brown

The Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...‎, the only woman to rule China as an emperor in her own name. High-Tang poetry, represented by Lǐ Bái 李白 ‎ and Dù Fǔ 杜甫 ‎, has become one of the most recognizable literary achievements in Chinese history. Buddhism ( Fójiào 佛教 ‎), originally a foreign religion introduced from India, gained popularity during the Tang. The dynasty was disrupted by a mass uprising, the Ān Lùshān Rebellion (Ānshǐ zhīluàn 安史之乱 ‎). The uprising was disastrous on many levels, destroying millions of lives and leaving China’s land and resources in ruins. After its suppression, the...

Tiantai

Tiantai   Reference library

Nirmal DASS

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...came to revolutionize Buddhism in China, imbuing it with a uniquely Sinitic approach that broke away from a continued dependence upon India as the place of authority for all things Buddhist. Therefore, Tiantai philosophy gave the Far East (China as well as Japan and Korea) its own form of Buddhism. The infiltration of Buddhism into China depended on the sporadic appearance of texts and traditions retrieved by travelers to India. Consequently, the result was a plethora of teaching and practices that were both divergent and even at times contradictory. For...

Trading Patterns, China Seas

Trading Patterns, China Seas   Reference library

Jürgen OSTERHAMMEL

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...Whereas the East India Company ( EIC ) preferred direct contact with Chinese merchants in Guangzhou and other south Chinese ports, the Dutch Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (Dutch East India Company or VOC) relied on Batavia (present-day Jakarta) as its central emporium and collecting point in the East. Thus, Batavia served as a link between the various Eastern networks and the transoceanic shipping routes. Container ship in the South China Sea. For centuries after the arrival of European shipping in East Asia, the main route from India into Pacific waters...

Jardine Matheson Group

Jardine Matheson Group   Reference library

Matthew E. CHEN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...Group Yíhé Jítuán 怡和集团 ‎ Building on earlier trading networks, Scottish entrepreneurs William Jardine ( 1784–1843 ) and James Matheson ( 1796–1878 ) founded Jardine Matheson near Guangzhou (Canton) in 1832 . After the British Parliament’s revocation of the East India Company’s commercial privileges in 1833 , Jardine Matheson sent its first delivery of Chinese tea to England in 1834 . The firm quickly established a leading position in trading, shipping, banking, insurance—and opium trading. Opium proved to be Jardine Matheson’s most...

Macao—History

Macao—History (2007)   Reference library

Robert John PERRINS

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...for Portuguese merchants in East Asia. Reporting to authorities in Goa, India, the Portuguese governor in Macao oversaw a vibrant trade with the Ming dynasty ( 1368–1644 ) and later the Qing dynasty ( 1644–1912 ), and his city was an important headquarters for the Jesuit missionary movement in East Asia. Other European powers, especially the Dutch, were jealous of Portugal’s position in Macao, and several times Macao had to defend itself from attacks by the Dutch East India Company. The colony did shelter the families of English and Dutch merchants who...

Bian Que

Bian Que   Reference library

Qiong ZHANG

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...Some other scholars, however, suggest that “Bian Que” may have been a sinicized version of the mythical gandharvas , the human-headed birds known in India since Vedic times that were traditionally regarded as skilled physicians. In this interpretation both the bird-man disguise and some of the healing techniques of Bian Que may have resulted from maritime cultural contact between the East China coast and India that had occurred in high antiquity. Despite the mystery surrounding the historicity of Bian Que as an individual, there is no doubt that, as the stuff...

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