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India

Subject: History

The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growth India's vast territory can be divided into three main regions ...

African Philosophies of History and Historiography

African Philosophies of History and Historiography   Reference library

Toyin Falola and Abikal Borah

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
10,855 words

...population back in India. These works collectively inform us about the regions from which Indian indentured workers were recruited, the difficulties they encountered during the passage across the sea, and the work conditions they faced upon their arrival in the colony of Natal. 47 Among sociologists, H. S. Morris’s The Indians in Uganda offered insight on religion and rituals, the structure of kinship relations, linguistic practices, and economic roles of the Indian community in Uganda. 48 Similarly, India in Africa, Africa in India , edited by John...

Archaeobotany: Methods

Archaeobotany: Methods   Reference library

Louis Champion and Dorian Q. Fuller

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
11,900 words
Illustration(s):
4

...hulls, which require dehusking. It was this form that spread first throughout Africa and across the seas to India, perhaps as early as 4,000 years ago. 73 Other races (e.g., caudatum, guinea, and durra) evolved later and in parallel developed free-threshing forms and forms with larger grains and denser ears, making for more productive forms and forms requiring fewer labor-intensive crop-processing steps. 74 The presence in India of the races, bicolor, caudatum, and guinea, is due to at least three separate introductions from Africa. 75 The...

Legal History and Historiography in Colonial Sub-Saharan Africa

Legal History and Historiography in Colonial Sub-Saharan Africa   Reference library

Richard Waller

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
13,363 words

...distantly echoed Henry Maine’s evolutionist scheme in which societies progressed from status to contract and from civil wrongs (torts) to public wrongs (crimes). Maine saw the British in India as agents in this progress, but the result was rather to confirm difference between rulers and ruled. See Thomas R. Metcalf, Ideologies of the Raj , New Cambridge History of India, vol. 3, 4 (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1994), chap. 3. 17. Brett Shadle, “‘Changing Traditions to Meet Current Altering Conditions’: Customary Law, African Courts and the...

African Diasporas: History and Historiography

African Diasporas: History and Historiography   Reference library

Mohammed Bashir Salau

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
12,895 words

...37 Richard Pankhurst has examined the African diaspora in India from early medieval times to the late 18th century and demonstrated how the Habshis and their descendants rose from slavery to ultimately establish ruling dynasties in various parts of India. Gwyn Campbell, Alpers, and other scholars, in different studies, have drawn attention to such relevant issues as the slave trade in the Indian Ocean, the varieties of slavery, and African experiences in South Asia and the connections between India and East Africa. Azaria Mbughuni has traced the movement of...

Genetics and Southern African History

Genetics and Southern African History   Reference library

Francesco Montinaro and Cristian Capelli

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
9,492 words
Illustration(s):
6

...show greatly reduced European ancestry in the X chromosome markers, which instead is enriched by Indonesian ancestry. 58 Y chromosome and mtDNA analysis on the same data set confirmed male/female imbalance contributions for Europeans (higher male contribution), and Khoe-San and India (higher female contribution). 59 The Baster population has been reported to have the largest Khoe-San maternal and the largest European paternal contributions across the Colored communities (both over 90 percent). At the genome level, the average European ancestry in the Basters is...

African Urban History and Historiography

African Urban History and Historiography   Reference library

Eric Ross

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
12,744 words

... Cape Town: The Making of a City (Claremont, South Africa: David Philip, 1998); and Alain Sinou, Comptoirs et villes coloniales du Sénégal: Saint-Louis, Gorée, Dakar (Paris: Karthala, 1993). 33. Michael N. Pearson, Port Cities and Intruders: The Swahili Coast, India, and Portugal in the Early Modern Era (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002). 34. Robert Chastel, Rabat-Salé: Vingt siècles de l’Oued Bou Regreg (Rabat: Editions La Porte, 1994); Roger Coindreau, Les Corsaires de Salé (Rabat, Morocco: La Croisée des Chemins,...

Documenting Precolonial Trade and Exchange in Africa

Documenting Precolonial Trade and Exchange in Africa   Reference library

Shadreck Chirikure

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
10,464 words
Illustration(s):
2

...minor, and trace element composition of glass beads used between 800 and 1650 ce and showed that the sources of raw materials used to make glass beads varied through time and were specific to Egypt, the Arabian Peninsula, and India, prompting them to model changes in glass-bead supply from Egypt to the Middle East and India and the Pacific that corresponded with geopolitical events in these regions through time. Prinsloo and Colomban used Raman spectrometry in combination with pXRF to provenance the celadon found at some of southern Africa’s sites such as...

Numerical Data and Statistical Sources

Numerical Data and Statistical Sources   Reference library

Leigh Gardner

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
9,648 words
Illustration(s):
2

...events that may have affected population numbers or fertility. Identifying the appropriate growth rate has been the subject of some controversy. For one set of estimates, Patrick Manning used the growth rate of better-documented India to develop new estimates for African countries. 23 A critique of this method argued that India was far more densely populated than much of sub-Saharan Africa and therefore adopting growth rates of land-abundant countries in southeast Asia would be more accurate. 24 Figure 1 compares estimates from these two works for the...

Sport History and Historiography

Sport History and Historiography   Reference library

Michelle Sikes

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
10,948 words

... 1930 and 1938 . The 1934 Games were to be hosted in Johannesburg, but auguring what was to come in South African sport, protests against South Africa’s racial policies saw the Games shift to London. Nigeria competed for the first time in Auckland, New Zealand, in 1950 . India’s membership in the Commonwealth as an independent nation precipitated a change of name to the British Empire and Commonwealth Games, which it was called between 1954 and 1966 . Alongside Nigeria’s team and teams from Southern Rhodesia and South Africa, four African colonial...

African Economic History and Historiography

African Economic History and Historiography   Reference library

Alois Mlambo

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
10,668 words

...in exchange for iron goods and weapons. The region became part of the Muslim world when Islam arrived in the 7th and 8th centuries . This was followed by increasing trade with the Persian Gulf and India. The region took advantage of the trade winds of the Indian Ocean, known as monsoon winds, which blow toward Africa from November to March and toward India and the Persian Gulf from April to October. East Africa also traded with China. The region’s international trade was conducted through a number of coastal trading towns, which included Kilwa, Zanzibar,...

Digital Sources in Europe for African History

Digital Sources in Europe for African History   Reference library

Marion Wallace

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
12,279 words

...Qatar Museums Authority. The site makes available large numbers of records (including documents, photographs and drawings, and maps) from the India Office Records held at the British Library. This online archive contains material relating to many African countries, especially Egypt, British Somaliland, and Abyssinia, since the British interest in these parts of Africa was pursued through the British government of India. In English and Arabic. • Rwanda: De la guerre au génocide (webpage hosted by Université Paris) ◦ The website of a book of this title by...

Stone Tools: Their Relevance for Historians and the Study of Historical Processes

Stone Tools: Their Relevance for Historians and the Study of Historical Processes   Reference library

Justin Pargeter

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
8,737 words
Illustration(s):
5

...Dietrich Stout, “Skill and Cognition in Stone Tool Production: An Ethnographic Case Study from Irian Jaya,” Current Anthropology 43, no. 5 (2002): 693–722; Valentine Roux, “Skills and Learning Difficulties Involved in Stone Knapping: The Case of Stone-Bead Knapping in Khambhat, India,” World Archaeology 27, no. 1 (1995): 63–87; Peter J. White, “Ston Naip Bilong Tumbuna: The Living Stone Age in New Guinea,” in La préhistoire: Problèmes et tendances , ed. F. Bordes and D. de Sonneville-Bordes (Paris: CNRS, 1968), 511–516; and Tom O. Miller Jr., “Stonework of...

Primary Historical Sources in Archaeology: Methods

Primary Historical Sources in Archaeology: Methods   Reference library

Rachel King

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
17,021 words

...Oudepost I focused on the impact of the colonial frontier on Khoe-San hunter-pastoralists at the Cape during the station’s occupation between 1669 and 1732 . 60 Historical sources such as letters between officials at the garrison and the Cape, and reports from the Dutch East India Company (VOC), described soldiers raising crops and stock and interacting minimally with Khoe-San; this was in keeping with contemporary VOC interdicts against trade with Africans. However, Schrire’s excavations revealed artifacts that she attributed to indigenous...

Migration History and Historiography

Migration History and Historiography   Reference library

Benedetta Rossi

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
16,419 words

...the 10th century ce . African slaves were also traded into India. 28 Clearly the volume and spread of the Indian Ocean trade were of great magnitude. Yet estimates of the volume of the Indian Ocean trade are notoriously difficult to make. Sources are scattered across a large number of archives and unevenly reliable for different periods. Richard Allen cautiously gives an estimate of 565,200 as the minimum number of slaves traded by Europeans from Mozambique, the Swahili Coast, Madagascar, India, Ceylon, and Southeast Asia to destinations within the Indian...

Documentary Sources and Methods for Precolonial African History

Documentary Sources and Methods for Precolonial African History   Reference library

Christina Mobley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
30,112 words

...world, oikoumenè , to the cosmos. The use of the term Aithiopia changed over time, referring, in epic poetry, to the lands and peoples of Africa and Asia, places conceived of as being home to “burnt”-skinned people, or Aethiops, including Arabia, Mesopotamia, Persia, and India. 41 The idea of Aithiopia was both geographical and ethnographic (and for early modern Europeans racial). The two concepts were fundamentally intertwined; the properties of the land Aithiopia and its inhabitants, the Aethiops, were connected through the Greek understanding of the...

Exploring Present Pasts: Popular Arts as Historical Sources

Exploring Present Pasts: Popular Arts as Historical Sources   Reference library

Bogumil Jewsiewicki and Allen F. Roberts

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
9,414 words
Illustration(s):
4

... in a Changing World,” African Arts 38, no. 4 (2005): 46–53, 93. 15. On ways that histories are created through local visual epistemologies (in this case among people of coastal Republic of Benin) despite what the same images may mean to those originating them (Hindus of India), see Dana Rush, “Eternal Potential: Chromolithographs in Vodunland, African Arts 32, no. 4 (1999): 60–75, 94–96. For discussion of how a photograph of a Samoan snake charmer performing in a 19th-century rural German circus becomes understood as the apotheosis of capitalism in...

Climatology: Methods

Climatology: Methods   Reference library

Sharon E. Nicholson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
12,177 words
Illustration(s):
22

...359–378. 3. A. Dalzel , The History of Dahomey (London: Frank Cass, 1793); and I. A. Akinjogbin , Dahomey and Its Neighbors, 1708–1818 (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1967). 4. D. Winstanley , “Recent Rainfall Trends in Africa, the Middle East and India,” Nature 243 (1973): 464–465; and A. H. Bunting , M. D. Dennette , J. Elston , and J. R. Milford , “Rainfall Trends in the West African Sahel,” Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 102 (1976): 59–64. 5. U. Schneider, A. Becker, P. Finger, A....

Archaeozoology: Methods

Archaeozoology: Methods   Reference library

Veerle Linseele

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
11,918 words
Illustration(s):
6

... and MacDonald and MacDonald, “Origins and Development of Domesticated Animals.” 74. Adam Heinrich , “Faunal Analysis and the Development of the Meat Industry in the 17th and 18th Centuries,” in Historical Archaeology in South Africa: Material Culture of the Dutch East India Company at the Cape , ed. Carmel Shrire (Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press, 2014), 65–100. 75. Louis Chaix , “The Fauna from the Uno/Bu Excavations at Bieta Giyorgis (Aksum) in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: Campaigns 1995–2003; Pre-Aksumite, 700–400 BC to Late Aksumite, AD...

Business Records as Sources for African History

Business Records as Sources for African History   Reference library

Dmitri van den Bersselaar

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
10,806 words

...9 For certain periods in some European countries, the slave trade was organized differently from what has been discussed thus far, with it being the preserve of slave trading companies holding an official monopoly, such as the English Royal African Company or the Dutch West India Company. However, as these companies dealt with the same issues of distance and risk, their organizations produced similar documentation to that of private companies, much of which is well described and accessible in official archives. Some categories of business records produced...

Paleoenvironmental Science: Methods

Paleoenvironmental Science: Methods   Reference library

David K. Wright

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
8,781 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Further Reading Ambrose, Stanley H. “Preparation and Characterization of Bone and Tooth Collagen for Isotopic Analysis.” Journal of Archaeological Science 17, no. 4 (1990): 431–451. Boggs, Sam, Jr. Principles of Sedimentology and Stratigraphy , 5th int. ed. Mumbai: Pearson India, 2016. Boomer, Ian , David J. Horne , and Ian J. Slipper . “The Use of Ostracods in Palaeoenvironmental Studies, or What Can You Do with an Ostracod Shell?” Paleontological Society Papers 9 (2003): 153–179. Cerling, Thure E. , J. Quade , Y. Wang , and J. R. Bowman . “Carbon...

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