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India

Subject: History

The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growth India's vast territory can be divided into three main regions ...

Ajanta, India

Ajanta, India   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
80 words

...India [Si] A Buddhist shrine in central India where a series of 28 rock‐cut temples were constructed along the northern shore of the Waghora River between the 1st century bc and the 5th century ad . On the walls are scenes from the Jatakas, stories about the lives of the Buddha in earlier incarnations. At its height, Ajanta was home to more than 200 monks. Sum.: R. Gupte and B. D. Mahajan , 1962, Ajanta, Ellora and Aurangabad caves . Bombay:...

Delhi, India

Delhi, India   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
183 words

...India [Si] Situated on the banks of the Yamuna River at the western end of the Ganga Valley, the modern capital of India has under and around it much of the ancient past. The earliest occupation appears to be the town of Indrapratha, home of the Mahabharata hero King Yudhishthira in the early 1st millennium bc , now under the Purana Qila (the Old Fort). By the 3rd century bc it was an important point on the trade routes between China and the west. The Tomara Rajputs made it their capital in ad 736 , calling the town Dhillika. It was captured by...

Taj Mahal, India

Taj Mahal, India   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
213 words

...Mahal, India [Si] Overlooking the River Yamuna, the Taj Mahal is a classic example of Moghul architecture, with the Taj itself built as a mausoleum at the northern end of an extensive formal walled garden designed in the charbagh style and structured on the Islamic theme of ‘paradise’. The whole site was built by Shah Jahan between ad 1632 and 1653 as the final resting place of his favourite wife, Arjumand Bann Begum (also known as Mumtaz Mahal), who died in ad 1631 shortly after giving birth to their fourteenth child. Upon his death in ad ...

Wheeler, Mortimer

Wheeler, Mortimer (1890–1976)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
582 words

...his field methodology and trained students. From this post he played a major role in establishing the Institute of Archaeology at London University. In 1943 , while on military service in World War II, he was posted to India as the director general of the Archaeological Survey, where he served until 1948 . The government of India gave Wheeler a broad mandate, and he undertook the complete reform of its archaeological enterprise. This involved more training of students and establishing a school of archaeology, which remains active today as the Institute...

Istituto Italiano per Il Medio Ed Estremo Oriente

Istituto Italiano per Il Medio Ed Estremo Oriente   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
295 words

...work in Nepal, Oman, Pakistan, Russia, Thailand, Hungary, and Yemen. New projects will involve China, Jordan, India, and Mongolia. Its research is organized through agreements with Italian institutions (mainly the National Research Council and the Oriental Institute of Naples), as well as with foreign institutions in Europe (in Austria, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, Russia, and Hungary), the United States, and Asia (in China, Japan, Jordan, India, Kuwait, Oman, Pakistan, Thailand, Turkmenistan, and Yemen). Gherardo...

Rawlinson, Henry Creswicke

Rawlinson, Henry Creswicke (1810–1895)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
417 words

... Rawlinson, Henry Creswicke ( 1810–1895 ), known as the “father of cuneiform.” Rawlinson was born in Oxfordshire, England. While an officer cadet in the East India Company In 1827 , he demonstrated a remarkable ability for languages, mastering five Oriental languages in a very short time. In 1833 , he was one of a party of British officers sent to reorganize the shah of Persia's army. Posted to Kurdistan, he decided to attempt a decipherment of King Darius's trilingual inscription on the Great Rock of Bisitun, commemorating that monarch's...

Field, Henry

Field, Henry (1902–1986)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
731 words

... Field, Henry ( 1902–1986 ), physical anthropologist , active in Iraq, Iran, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, India, Pakistan, Europe, and Northeast Africa and prolific writer and editor. Field was born in Chicago and received his B.A. ( 1925 ) and D.Sc. ( 1937 ) from Oxford University. His appointments in anthropology include the Field Museum, Chicago ( 1926–1941 ); United States Navy, Washington, D.C. ( 1941–1945 ); Peabody Museum, Cambridge, Massachusetts ( 1950–1986 ); and the University of Miami, Florida ( 1966–1986 ). He directed the Field...

Lawrence, Thomas Edward

Lawrence, Thomas Edward (1888–1935)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
538 words

...His identity was quickly revealed, and he was discharged. In 1923 he enlisted in the tank corps under the name T. E. Shaw and in 1927 officially changed his name to Shaw. In 1925 he was able to return to the RAF. Late in 1926 he was posted to Karachi, India, and in 1928 to Miranshah on India's northwest frontier, where he remained until his presence was exposed in 1929 . He returned to England and from 1929 to 1935 worked as part of an RAF team testing designs for a speedboat to tend seaplanes. Lawrence left the RAF in February 1935 , retiring...

Mocha

Mocha   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
658 words

...was linked by road with Bayt al-Faqih, to the north, which was the emporium for collecting the bales from the mountainous interior where the coffee grew. Before the arrival of European traders (i.e., before the seventeenth century ce ), Mocha served as a small port in the Egypt-India trade. It grew in importance after Ottoman Turkish measures against the Portuguese restricted trading activity at the port of Aden. English and Dutch factories were established first under Ottoman authority In 1618 ; the height of the coffee trade was reached between about 1660 ...

Horsfield, George

Horsfield, George (1882–?)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
485 words

...), British excavator of Petra and the first chief British officer of the Department of Antiquities of Transjordan ( 1928 ). Born in the north of England, Horsfield trained as an architect, working first in New York City and then, following World War I, with the British Army in India. In the early 1920s he was one of John Garstang's students at the British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem. In 1924 Garstang gave Horsfield responsibility for the Antiquities of Mandate Transjordan. Much of the work he performed in this role was directed to clearing and...

Kitchener, Horatio Herbert

Kitchener, Horatio Herbert   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
461 words

...by Charles Wilson to carry out the trigonometrical survey of the Wadi ῾Arabah during Edward Hull's geological reconnaissance of the Sinai Peninsula, also under the auspices of the PEF. Kitchener made his professional name in the administration of Egypt, Sudan, South Africa, and India. He was distinguished as a Knight of the Garter, Knight Grand Cross of the Bath, and Knight Grand Cross of St. Michael and St. George and earned the order of merit. At the time of his death, he held the post of secretary of state for war. [See also Palestine Exploration Fund ; ...

Smith, George Adam

Smith, George Adam (1856–1942)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
492 words

... Smith, George Adam ( 1856–1942 ), prominent Hebrew Bible scholar and theologian, born in Calcutta, India. Smith studied arts and theology at Edinburgh University and pursued further studies at the universities of Tübingen and Leipzig. In 1878 he traveled to Cairo, where he learned Arabic; he made his first trip, on foot, through Palestine and Syria in 1880 . Smith's earliest publication was a commentary on the Book of Isaiah (Expositor's Bible Series, 2 vols., 1888–1890 ). In 1891 , during his second trip to Palestine, he...

Ra's Al-hadd

Ra's Al-hadd   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
664 words

...structure with rectangular walls suggest a strongpoint near the lagoon. Islamic occupation is widely attested, and the HD 2 area on the promontory is rich in sherds dating from before ad 1000 to recent times. Plain and glazed wares probably derive from Oman, the Gulf, Iran, India, and Pakistan; Chinese and African wares are common. Excavations at HD 4 exposed a building of coral blocks. There is much glass, and evidence exists for the manufacture of lapis lazuli and carnelian beads. An oyster midden extends beside the sea. The modern town has developed...

Palmer, Edward Henry

Palmer, Edward Henry (1840–1882)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
578 words

...the holder to keep his position if he married. Palmer married and began a period of intense and productive work. In 1881 the Egyptian army rebelled against the Anglo-French domination of its country, and London feared for the safety of the Suez Canal, the strategic link to India. Britain's military occupation of Egypt made it necessary to secure the loyalty of the bedouin tribes in Sinai, and Palmer was asked to undertake the mission with government backing and a few men. He left Gaza on 15 July 1881 and traveled through the desert, visiting the leaders...

Sohar

Sohar   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,151 words

...Early Parthian to Late Sasanian ( c. 100–600 ce ). [See Parthians ; Sasanians .] Scattered remains of temporary buildings were first found at the lowest levels, succeeded by Parthian structures of fired and baked brick. Ceramics included red-polished wares known from western India (modern Dhofar) (Kervran and Hiebert, 1991 , p. 341); for similar material found earlier by Ray L. Cleveland , see Yule and Kervran, 1993 , p. 90, fig. 10; Potts, 1990 , pp. 292–293). Sasanian ceramics include a similar repertoire found at Siraf, as well as stoneware imported...

Yemen

Yemen   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
2,358 words
Illustration(s):
1

...(e.g., Commiphora myrrha , found as far west as Shabwa today) required for religious services throughout the ancient Near East and the Mediterranean. Volcanic glass, carnelian, and agate are found in Yemen; other stones and aromatics were imported (for reexport) from Africa and India. Although trade connections with the rest of the Near East have not been demonstrated before the tenth century bce , the Egyptians may have regarded the land of Punt (a source of semiprecious stones and aromatics, with which they had been trading since the third millennium) as...

Alexandrian Empire

Alexandrian Empire   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
3,763 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Isles to India. [See Coins .] In spite of economic growth in the Hellenistic Age, war still provided the usual means of expanding royal wealth. Taxes, tolls, and tribute seldom met the exorbitant needs of the kings, for whom conspicuous consumption on a grand scale was a hallmark of Hellenistic monarchy. If not by trade, then by conquest, these kings sought luxury goods to put on parade. On one famous occasion, Ptolemy II (285/82–246) marched through Alexandria an astounding display of prestige items, including exotic animals from India, Ethiopia, and...

Ḥimyar

Ḥimyar   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
909 words

...mentioning building projects and occasional military campaigns. The reign of Abu-Karib Asad , a particularly long-lived king of the late fourth and early fifth centuries, may have marked the apogee of Ḥimyar. Later Arab traditions credit him with conquests as far afield as India and China. Late Ḥimyar is usually characterized as increasingly feudal, though there is little evidence for its social and governmental organization. Behind-the-scenes serious sectarian rivalries must have been developing. South Arabia's indigenous religion had primarily been...

Thaj

Thaj   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
944 words

...port of Jubayl. Although knowledge of the site's existence dates to the mid-nineteenth century ce , Thaj was not visited by a European until 1911 , when W. H. I. Shakespear , a military officer serving in the diplomatic post of political agent in Kuwait for the Government of India, copied two inscribed grave stelae he found on the surface of the site. In 1942 , H. R. P. Dickson and V. P. Dickson visited Thaj, but it was only during the early 1960s that a number of surface finds made by ARAMCO (Arabian American Oil Company) oilmen and their families...

Adulis

Adulis   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
827 words
Illustration(s):
1

..., important ancient coastal trading center in Ethiopia (now in Eritrea; 15°17′ N, 39°40′ E). Located on the deep Gulf of Zula (Annesley Bay), Adulis was the Red Sea port of ancient Axum. This was where Roman traders transshipped goods to vessels headed for southern India. From Adulis, ivory collected in northern Ethiopia was shipped to the eastern Mediterranean. Although the site was occupied before the Aksumite period, the period of its activity as a trading center was from the first through the eighth century ce . The first extensive note about Adulis...

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