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Overview

India

Subject: History

The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growth India's vast territory can be divided into three main regions ...

India

India   Reference library

Judith Brown

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
5,182 words
Illustration(s):
3

...was that India, compared with its contribution in the earlier years of the century, had declined in economic value to the UK; and Britain was for the first time India's debtor rather than creditor as a result of the war effort and India's vast sterling balances. In such a situation there could be no reassertion of empire. The end of the Raj in India was also highly significant for the future of Britain's relations with its other colonies and its attempts to construct patterns of world-wide defence. The protection of India and routes to India had been at...

India–Pakistan wars

India–Pakistan wars   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Military History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...–Pakistan wars Relations between the states of India and Pakistan have been blighted since the two states gained their independence in 1947 . The Hindu states of British India formed the new country of India, while those states with a Muslim majority became part of Pakistan. The geographic-religious breakdown of the population meant that Pakistan was divided by India into West and East Pakistan. Those states ruled by local princes were permitted to join either India or Pakistan. The whole process led to a legacy of ill feeling between the two countries, and...

China–Burma–India theatre

China–Burma–India theatre   Reference library

Lyman P. Van Slyke

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
2,346 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the Pacific was an American responsibility, the British were in charge from Singapore to Suez, and Chiang Kai-shek remained Supreme Commander of the China theatre. Wavell continued to exercise overall command in India and Burma. As part of this restructuring, Stilwell formed a Headquarters, American Armed Forces: China, Burma, and India. The new command embraced a small pre-existing American Military Mission to China (AMMISCA) and the American Volunteer Group of Maj-General Chennault , later a part of Tenth Army Air Force and eventually of Fourteenth...

China-Burma-India theater

China-Burma-India theater   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002

...India theater also CBI theater the least influential and least promiment area that saw major military action in World War II . Although the United States had an objective of building up China as a source of manpower and a possible base for an eventual invasion of Japan , other Allies were largely preoccupied with the more dramatic events in other theaters. A joint British and American operation reopened the strategic Burma Supply Road in 1945 , which had been blocked by the...

China‐Burma‐India Theater

China‐Burma‐India Theater (1941–45)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...India Theater ( 1941–45 ). The China‐Burma‐India (CBI) theater has been dubbed “the forgotten theater” of World War II. Once the United States entered the war, American strategy called for building up China as a source of manpower, as a base for bombers and the eventual invasion of Japan, and as a pro‐American regional power in the postwar era. After Japanese occupation of Burma and the April 1942 closure of the Burma Road, China's last overland link with its allies, two years passed before the Allies could make a major effort to reopen the route....

Muslim League, All-India

Muslim League, All-India   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World War II

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...Indian government if they did not wish it. This undertaking was clarified by the Cripps mission in March 1942 , whose offer of post-war independence for India specifically stated that no part of India would be forced to become part of an independent state if it did not wish to ( see India , 3). These promises gave Jinnah useful leverage in the various negotiations which preceded India's independence in 1947 . Soon after the outbreak of war in 1939 , the eight Congress ministries in the provinces and the pro-Congress North-West Frontier Provinces...

Peace Constitution of India

Peace Constitution of India  

Mohandas K. Gandhi (1869–1948) is celebrated in India as the “Father of the Nation,” but no one has ever called him the “Father of the State.” Gandhi was the unrivalled ...
Peace Movements in India

Peace Movements in India  

The origin and character of peace movements in India is different from those of the West. Indian peace movements are rooted in struggles of oppressed people to protect natural resources ...
Indian National Congress

Indian National Congress   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World War II

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...National Congress , political party founded in 1885 to embrace all religions and factions in India. By 1939 it had become the main Hindu political group with a membership of nearly 4.5 million, but its Muslim support had been eroded by the Muslim League . See also India ,...

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Andaman and Nicobar Islands   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World War II

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...and Nicobar Islands , adjacent groups in the Bay of Bengal (Indian Ocean) which were administered by India. In March 1942 , after Rangoon had fallen to the Japanese at the start of the Burma campaign , the British garrison was withdrawn. The same month the islands were occupied by the Japanese who, at the end of 1943 , handed over their administration, but not their defence, to Subhas Chandra Bose 's Provisional government of Free India. The islands were strategically placed but in December 1943 it was decided at the Cairo conference ( see SEXTANT...

Indian National Army

Indian National Army   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World War II

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...(Azad Hind Fauj) failed militarily but not politically, for its existence was influential in gaining India its independence in 1947 . Fujiwara and Pritam Singh worked together during the Malayan campaign to sap the morale of the badly organized Indian troops and to recruit them into Pritam's organization. One POW recruited into the League, a Sikh captain called Mohan Singh , became the INA's first commander and he and Fujiwara spoke of an independent India to a vast throng of Indian prisoners in Singapore where the INA was inaugurated in February 1942 ....

Indian Independence League

Indian Independence League   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World War II

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...Independent League of India in Bangkok, worked with Fujiwara to undermine the morale of Indian troops during the Malayan campaign and the fall of Singapore , and to recruit them into the League. After June 1942 the League was the only political organization allowed by the Japanese in Malaya, where it helped alleviate the problems of the Indian community. Other branches quickly sprang up throughout South-East Asia and Subhas Chandra Bose became its president in July 1943 . When Bose founded the Provisional government of Free India in October 1943 it...

Indian Legion

Indian Legion   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World War II

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...Bose from Indian prisoners-of-war captured during the Western Desert campaigns to further his cause for an independent India. Out of 15,000 prisoners 4,000 volunteered. They finished training in December 1942 and three battalions of 1,000 men each were formed, but they were officered by Germans who gave their orders in German. In early 1943 Bose left Germany for Japan to try to realize his ambitions for an independent India and two months after his departure the Legion mutinied as its members wished only to fight the UK, not the USSR. Ten men were...

Hump, the

Hump, the   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World War II

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...the , name given to the air route organized by the India–China Wing of US Air Transport Command which supplied US forces in China and Chiang Kai-shek and his army. In April 1944 it also airlifted 18,000 Chinese troops to India to participate in Stilwell 's advance during the Burma campaign . Once the Chinese coastline had been sealed by the Japanese ( see China incident ), and Burma captured so that the Burma Road could not be used, the only method of supplying the Chinese was to airlift supplies across a series of mountain ridges (Patkai, Kumon,...

Aden

Aden   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World War II

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...and port in the Arabian peninsula. The protectorate which covered 112,000 sq. mi. stretched from the port to the border of Oman. The port was acquired by the British as a coaling station in 1839 . It became a crown colony in 1937 , having been previously administered from India, and Indian troops recaptured British Somaliland from it in March 1941 . In 1967 longstanding territorial claims by Yemen on it were...

Burcorps

Burcorps   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World War II

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...formed on 19 March 1942 by the British C-in-C Burma, Alexander . It comprised nearly all the British forces fighting the Japanese in the Burma campaign : the 1st Burma Division, 17th Indian Division, and 7th Armoured Brigade and was commanded by Slim . After it escaped into India it became part of 4th...

Commonwealth prime ministers' conference

Commonwealth prime ministers' conference   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World War II

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...the independent Dominions were, by then, commonly known as the British Commonwealth. Present were the prime ministers of Australia ( Curtin ), Canada ( Mackenzie King ), New Zealand ( Fraser ), South Africa ( Smuts ), and Southern Rhodesia, and there were two representatives from India. There were wide-ranging discussions on the war and a comprehensive appraisal of the position and future prospects of the British Empire. See also UK ,...

Gandhi, Mohandas K.

Gandhi, Mohandas K. (1869–1948)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...lawyer by profession, was born at Porbandar in Gujarat. After living in South Africa, where he began his life of fighting injustice—whether caused by racism, imperialism, or caste—he returned to India in 1915 . By 1921 he controlled the policies of the Indian National Congress ( see India , 3) and declared that ‘my life is dedicated to the service of India through the religion of non-violence which I believe to be the root of Hinduism’. He was soon known to millions as Mahatma (great soul) and he gave them hope and a degree of self-respect. He adopted...

Ledo Road

Ledo Road   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World War II

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...Road , 770 km. (478 mi.) long India–China supply road and oil pipeline built through the mountainous area of northern Burma. It ran from Ledo (situated in India near the northern border with Burma) to Myitkyina in northern Burma, then Bhamo, and finally to Muse where it connected with the Burma Road that had been built to Kunming in China. It took 17,000 Allied engineers and $148 million to build it, and was one of the major engineering feats of the war. Construction started in December 1942 at the insistence of the USA, which was eager to support ...

LeMay, Maj-General Curtis E.

LeMay, Maj-General Curtis E. (1906–90)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World War II

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...bombing , for example). He was promoted brigadier-general in September 1943 and maj-general before he took command of the Twentieth USAAF's 20th Bomber Command in the China–Burma–India theatre in August 1944 . The 20th Bomber Command flew supplies from India into China, over the Hump air route, and bombed Japan with the new B29 Superfortresses that were based in India and staged through Chinese airfields. In January 1945 LeMay took command of Twentieth USAAF's 21st Bomber Command which mounted raids on Japan from its base on the Mariana Islands....

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