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India

Subject: History

The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growth India's vast territory can be divided into three main regions ...

India

India   Reference library

Asiya Alam

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,708 words

...biased personal laws—is perpetuating their structured disempowerment (Hasan and Menon, pp. 232–244). The story of Muslim women's activism in India is a checkered trajectory characterized by the dynamism of upper and middle class groups calling for “ sharif ” social reform during the phase of colonialism, followed by the painful disarray of agendas and ideologies brought upon by the division of the subcontinent into India and Pakistan. In recent decades, feminist struggles of Muslim women have targeted two enemies: the male patriarchal elite within the community...

Besant, Annie

Besant, Annie (1847–1933)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology, Politics
Length:
84 words

... socialist , women’s rights campaigner , and champion of self-rule in Ireland and in India. In 1877 she and her friend Charles Bradlaugh were prosecuted for publishing a book by a birth-control campaigner. Besant was involved in much union activity, including famously the London matchgirls’ strike of 1888 . In her later years she became increasingly involved with theosophy, an esoteric religious belief. She travelled widely, lived the last years of her life in India, and worked to advance education...

selective abortion

selective abortion   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology, Politics
Length:
68 words

...eliminating foetuses that do not conform to certain norms or sociocultural preferences, or where multiple foetuses are a risk for the life of the mother or other foetuses in the womb. The term also references the gendered practice of aborting female foetuses in countries such as India and China, where there is a preference for boys to continue the family...

dowry

dowry   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology, Politics
Length:
75 words

...Dowries are common in parts of northern Africa and Asia. They are often custom and practice, rather than legal entitlements. Disputes about the amounts transferred from the bride’s to the groom’s family can lead to dowry-related violence, including the killing of the bride or, in India especially, to acid attacks on the...

Lorenz curve

Lorenz curve   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Social Research Methods

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
137 words

...such as incomes of households or earnings. Lorenz curves are based on at least ten bins, each bin being a domain on the horizontal axis. A figure with thirty bins is used below to illustrate. Here, the distribution of per capita household expenditure among individuals in India in 1993 and 2012 is depicted using National Sample Survey data (Employment and Unemployment Survey). The tiny difference between the two curves shows that the 2012 distribution is slightly more unequal than in 1993. A generalized Lorenz curve can help with comparisons over...

Gender Studies

Gender Studies   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology, Politics
Length:
272 words

...greater inclusivity of people with diverse and fluid identities such as transsexuals, but has also been critiqued as being depoliticized. In many countries such as France and China, Gender Studies does not exist as an academic discipline in its own right; in others such as India, Australia, the UK, and Sweden there are both Departments of Gender or Women’s Studies and courses with a gender perspective in many traditional disciplines. The curricula of Gender and Women’s Studies tend to include courses on feminist theory and feminist methodology, but vary...

Asian/Asian American Interpretation

Asian/Asian American Interpretation   Reference library

Jin Young Choi

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
5,600 words

...to multiple peoples and diverse cultures and histories. Not only do geographical and geopolitical situatedness and social formation distinguish Asians and Asian Americans, but Asia itself is heterogeneous. Even in a single country with a presumably homogeneous population like India, there are a multitude of indigenous people. East Asia. East Asian biblical interpretation generally addresses cross-textual and cross-cultural issues on the one hand and liberative concerns on the other. East Asian interpretation cannot be discussed without considering the...

Gender Transgression

Gender Transgression   Reference library

Deryn Guest, Walter D. Penrose Jr., Eric Thurman, Sean D. Burke, Sarra Lev, and Kristi Upson-Saia

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
23,362 words

... Before Sexuality: The Construction of Erotic Experience in the Ancient Greek World , edited by David M. Halperin , John J. Winkler , and Froma I. Zeitlin , pp. 389–415. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1990. Nanda, Serena . Neither Man nor Woman: The Hijras of India. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 1990. Penrose, Walter . “Bold with the Bow and Arrow: Amazons and the Ethnic Gendering of Martial Prowess in Ancient Greek and Asian Cultures.” Ph.D. diss., City University of New York Graduate Center, 2006. Pomeroy, Sarah B. Spartan Women. New York:...

Marriage and Divorce

Marriage and Divorce   Reference library

Sarah Shectman, Annalisa Azzoni, Eva Cantarella, Julie Langford, Mary Rose D’Angelo, Shulamit Valler, and B. Diane Lipsett

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
23,877 words

...preach a gospel of sexual renunciation; girls and women respond by abandoning marriage or the marriage bed and adopting changed social roles; households and cities are left in turmoil; and elite males pursue the disruptive apostles. In the Acts of Thomas , the apostle travels to India where, in the bridal chamber on the wedding night, he persuades the king’s daughter and her bridegroom to renounce “filthy intercourse,” with its hazards of children ( Acts of Thomas , 12). In the Acts of Andrew , the female disciple Maximilla joins herself to the apostle, leaves...

passive resistance

passive resistance   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
166 words

...resistance A tactic of non-violent resistance to authority pioneered by Mahatma Gandhi in his campaign against the British government in India in the 1930s and 1940s. Passive resistance has since become an accepted way for minorities to place moral pressure on majorities. It failed in Czechoslovakia in 1968 , but had great success in the American Civil Rights Movement between 1955 and 1964 , when many thousands of activists were arrested for violating racial segregation rules in the South, culminating in the Civil Rights Act of 1964 . The tactic...

civil disobedience

civil disobedience   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
153 words

...disobedience The refusal by all or part of a community to pay taxes or obey the laws and regulations of the state , in an attempt to change government policy by non-violent means. The Gandhian protests against British Rule in India are one obvious example. More recently, substantial numbers of British voters refused to pay a community charge (or so-called poll tax) to fund the spending of local government, and successfully forced a change in the system of taxation. More generally, however, civil disobedience shades into other (sometimes violent) forms of...

Myrdal, Alva

Myrdal, Alva (1902–86)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
172 words

...science collaboration over social development and political democratization. With British sociologist Viola Klein she wrote the first comparative empirical work on women and changing labour market participation, Women's Two Roles (1956). After a period as Ambassador to India, she turned to the politics of peace and disarmament, for which she gained the Nobel Peace Prize in 1982...

Buddhism

Buddhism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
282 words

...A salvation religion, founded in north India in the fifth century bce —the exact dates are the subject of scholarly controversy—by Siddhartha Gautama, known as the Buddha (meaning Enlightened One). Buddhism as taught by the Buddha was a universalist humanism not unconnected with the emergence of urban culture in north India. Buddhist teaching involves reverence for the so-called Three Jewels: the Buddha himself; the Dharma or doctrine taught by him; and the Monastic Community (monks and nuns who renounce the married household to live out the doctrine in...

Hinduism

Hinduism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
612 words

...A belief-system with a history stretching back some 5 000 years, and practised today by approximately five hundred million people, mainly in India. This religious tradition is very diversified: there is no generally acknowledged single teacher or creed, and some commentators speak of the Hindu tradition embracing several religions, while not a few question whether the Western concept of religion is at all applicable in this context. The distinctive features of Hindu religion (its vast complexity aside) are the caste system and the view of life...

post-colonialism

post-colonialism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
269 words

...sought to speak on behalf of the colonized subjects rather than to write history from the standpoint of the colonial authorities. Partha Chatterjee ( Nationalist Thought and the Colonial World , 1986) and Ranajit Guha ( Elementary Aspects of Peasant Insurgency in Colonial India , 1983) were the key figures. The aim was to let subaltern, or subordinate, voices be heard and to break with the dominant colonial discourse. Related ideas that have influenced contemporary post-colonialism include those of the Franz Fanon and Edward Said ( Orientalism ,...

Malthus, Thomas Robert

Malthus, Thomas Robert (1766–1834)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
279 words

...father, a liberal English landowner and a friend of Rousseau , educated his own son until he went to Cambridge. There, Malthus was appointed a Fellow in 1793 , and in 1797 he took Holy Orders. In 1805 he became Professor of History and Political Economy at the East India Company College at Haileybury. In his Essay Malthus engaged with the contemporary debate about the perfectibility of humankind. Against writers such as Godwin and Condorcet , who believed that the human race was capable of ever greater improvement and happiness, Malthus,...

socio-technical system

socio-technical system   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
283 words

...for consultation, innovation, flexibility, and an open mind in the design of work processes and procedures. The consultancy and action research work which led to the formulation of socio-technical systems was carried out in the coal-mining and textiles industries in Britain and India in the 1940s and 1950s, and seemed to show that work teams which operated a flexible allocation of tasks and jobs achieved higher productivity , lower absenteeism, and fewer accidents than work teams with a rigid division of labour and inflexible ‘segregated’ task groups. The...

ethnicity

ethnicity   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
431 words

...American society. Ethnic groups are therefore fluid in composition and subject to changes in definition. New ethnic groups are constantly being formed as populations move between countries. Indians in Britain, for example, constitute an ethnic group—although as individuals in India they would be seen to be members of quite different groups in terms of caste and language . The concept of ethnicity is particularly important when it forms the basis for social discrimination (as, for example, in the case of Jews in Nazi Germany) or for independence...

caste

caste   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
492 words

...non-Hindu outsiders very successfully. Since independence in 1947 , the Indian state has attempted to break down caste divisions and to improve the position of the untouchables (now called Dalit ). In practice caste retains an important role in the social structure of India and Indian overseas communities. Max Weber attempted to convert the term into an ideal type of rigid hierarchical social stratification , based on extreme closure criteria. He saw it as synonymous with ethnic status stratification and as one end of a continuum that contrasted...

Industrial Revolution, The

Industrial Revolution, The   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
767 words

...of powerful manufacturing industries that in turn relied on, and were strengthened by, both expanding internal markets and exports overseas. The textile industry, for instance, relied on raw material from America; finished goods were sold internally but also abroad, especially in India, where British colonial rule was able virtually to destroy the once flourishing Indian textile industry by forbidding the export of Indian textiles. Fifth, technological inventions and developments, in particular that of steam power, were crucial to the operation of trains, ships,...

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