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Overview

India

Subject: History

The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growth India's vast territory can be divided into three main regions ...

Civil Liberties

Civil Liberties   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...Liberties Civil liberties refer to certain freedoms granted to all citizens. They have been established as bills of rights in the constitutions of such countries as the United States, India, South Africa, and Great Britain. Civil rights differ from civil liberties in that the former are expressed in statutes enacted by legislative bodies. Civil liberties limit the state's power to interfere in the lives of its citizens, whereas civil rights take a more proactive role to ensure that all citizens have equal protection. Civil liberties are most endangered...

Asian Americans

Asian Americans   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Social Welfare and Social Services
Length:
19,050 words
Illustration(s):
1

...( Deepak Chopra ). Infosys Technologies founded by an Indian recently sent 2,500 Americans to seek IT training in India. India's medical tourism further validates the turning point in the Indo-American dyad. Medical tourism is outsourcing of medical treatment and care outside the U.S. borders. India, Singapore, and Thailand are main centers of providing cheaper and better medical services. More than 6,000 Americans went to India for such treatment last year. The world events have, however, widened a sense of cultural identity. After 9/11, says Mira...

Technology Transfer

Technology Transfer   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...nature of sugarcane was discovered independently in Java and Barbados during the 1880s. This discovery allowed the global export of a variety of seedlings, which, unfortunately, were highly susceptible to the diseases of the countries of destination. But experimental stations in India successfully developed interspecies hybrids that were both disease-resistant and suited to local conditions. After this breakthrough, different countries began experimenting with hybrids of imported and local seedlings. Today, although relatively little actual transfer of plants...

Globalization

Globalization   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...and legal systems are not of recent vintage, globalization today is more than simply a continuation of an ancient phenomenon. Contemporary globalization has a number of special characteristics. First is its scale and scope: with the robust involvement of Brazil, Russia, India, and China and of the nations of the former Soviet block, a majority of the worlds' people is now engaged in the global economy. Second is its speed: ideas, technology, currency, and people can now move with swiftness undreamed of before, and innovation can now be disseminated at...

International Social Work

International Social Work   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...of technical assistance for development of both services and training programs throughout Asia and Africa. A unique but short-lived experiment in international social work was the placement of Social Welfare Attachés in the U.S. embassies in France and India in 1948 and again in Brazil and India in 1960s. Although the contributions of social workers to the work of the State Department were valued, the positions fell victim to budget-cutting. The role of social work inside the United Nations diminished after the 1970s as the organization turned away...

Civil Society

Civil Society   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...future direction of globalization, democracy, and development. For instance, mobilization of voters by civil society groups and global media sources have increased citizen awareness and participation in the political process and influenced local and national election outcomes in India, Spain, Great Britain, and the United States. Further, global philanthropy—orchestrated through transnational civil society groups and social movements—has been a major catalyst in the economic and social development and rehabilitation of regions and countries affected by natural...

Elder Abuse

Elder Abuse   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

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Current Version:
2008

...emphasizes that the sociocultural context of particular importance is the early stage of research in developing nations where problem recognition and professional and community concerns have the potential to influence the development of services. Some of the poorest regions in India and the smallest countries in Africa are attempting to build on village or tribal community resources so as to offer better protection to the most vulnerable elders. In these efforts ancient values and traditions of “honoring the elders” are being rekindled with contemporary...

Human Rights

Human Rights   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...the United States . Harvard International Review , 20(3), 72–75. Wronka, J. (2001, July). Human Rights House Bill No. 850: A request for support . NASW News , 46(7), 4. Wronka, J. (2002). On the theme creating a human rights culture: The Dr. Ambedkar lectures . Bhubenaswar, India: National Institute of Social Work and the Social Sciences Press. Wronka, J. (2004). Human rights and advanced generalist practice. In A. Roy and F. Vecchiolla (Eds.), Thoughts on advanced generalist education: Models, readings, and essays (pp. 223–242). Peosta, IA: Eddie...

Immigrants and Refugees

Immigrants and Refugees   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...of Origin Among the foreign-born in 2003 , 53.3% were born in Latin America, 25.0% in Asia, 13.7% in Europe, and the remaining 8.0% in other regions of the world (Larsen, 2004 ). In 2000 , the top three countries of origin were Mexico (29.5%), the Philippines (4.4%), and India (3.3%) (U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 ). Demographic and Socioeconomic Characteristics Table 2 provides a composite profile of the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the foreign-born. It should be noted, however, that the foreign-born are a very heterogeneous population...

International Social Work and Social Welfare

International Social Work and Social Welfare   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...in China, India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh—that means greater challenges in job provision, transport and infrastructure development, housing, and social services for these countries (Population Reference Bureau, 2006 ). Economic and Political Contexts There is a huge disparity in wealth among Asian countries, with Japan being the world's second largest economy and North Korea being one of world's poorest nations. About 1 in 3 Asians is poor—that is, some 900 million people live on less than U.S. $1 a day. 450 million of the poor live in India, 225 million...

Immigration Policy

Immigration Policy   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...Office of Homeland Security, Office of Immigration Statistics. Retrieved May 26, 2006, from http://www.uscis.gov/graphics/shared/statistics/publications/FlowRptTempAdmis2004.pdf Haniffa, A. (1999, September 17). New immigrants likely to be poor and stay poor, says study. India Abroad , 39. Hugo, G. (2003). Circular migration: Keeping development rolling? Migration Information Source . Retrieved October 5, 2006, from http://www.migrationinformation.org/Feature/display.cfm?ID=129 Immigration and Nationality Act. Retrieved October 25, 2006, from ...

Jewish Communal Services

Jewish Communal Services   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...need, facilitating their independence and self-sufficiency. It is estimated that 5.2 million Jews currently live in the United States. Just as their numbers have increased since the original 23 Jews debarked in New Amsterdam in 1654 with special permission from the Dutch West India Company, so too has there been growth in the number of social organizations that provide for health, welfare, recreational, and spiritual needs (Berger, 1980 ). Poverty is still a very real problem among Jews. In New York City, the city with the largest Jewish population in the...

Disasters

Disasters   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...( 2005 ) raised concerns regarding the tsunami's impact on women. In Indonesia, for example, women have had to assume greater workloads in caring for extended families, and may be encouraged to marry earlier than in the past because of a post-tsunami gender imbalance. In India, the loss of assets, homes, and family members have contributed to greater gender inequality between men and women (Tata Institute of Social Sciences, 2005 ). Overall, evaluations have highlighted shortcomings in ensuring participation and consultation with affected communities,...

Community Organization

Community Organization   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...encourages local participation in these efforts. Despite the emphasis on social development as an international organizing form, a variety of models can be found in countries throughout the world. Liberation theology in Brazil (Boff, 1987 ), micro-enterprise development in India (Dignard & Havet, 1995 ), organizing for reconciliation in the Balkans (Despotovic et al., 2007 ), community development in Kenya (Ellis et al., 2007 ), social action in Bolivia (Olivera, 2004 ), anti-violence work in Northern Ireland (Meyer, 2003 ), popular education with...

Occupational Social Work

Occupational Social Work   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...is beyond the scope of this entry, it should be noted that occupational social work practice has existed on a large scale abroad for many years as a permanent and frequently government-supported field of practice. Such countries as Belgium, Brazil, France, Germany, Holland, India, Ireland, Israel, Peru, Poland, and Zambia have well-established occupational social welfare programs and services.) Professional practice in world-of-work settings in the United States includes addressing, for example, the need for youth employment training, outplacement...

Progressive Social Work

Progressive Social Work   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...and autonomy . Qualitative Social Work , 2(2), 177–196. Gardner, F. (2003). Critical reflection in community-based evaluation . Qualitative Social Work , 2(2), 197–212. George, P. , & Marlowe, S. (2005). Structural social work in action: Experiences from rural India . Journal of Progressive Human Services , 16(1), 5–24. Gil, D. G. (1998). Confronting injustice and oppression: Concepts and strategies for social workers . New York: Columbia University Press. Gil, D. G. (2004). Perspectives on social justice . Reflections: Narratives of...

Divorce

Divorce   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...the first year of marriage and those that would be counter to the interests of minor children. Only after the interests of children have been considered can the couple proceed with the divorce process (Mozny & Katrnak, 2005 ). In countries that emphasize collectivism, such as in India, divorce has more frequently become accepted. However, the divorce rate is still much lower than in Western societies that emphasize individualism. Reasons for divorce vary with culture. Among families in Kenya, a common reason for divorce is infertility (Mburugu & Adams, 2005 )....

Research

Research   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...work research uses literature from two or more countries to develop the research problem and objectives, and it discusses the social work implications for those countries (Tripodi & Potocky-Tripodi, 2007 ). For national social work journals (United States, United Kingdom, and India) the percentage of articles that were based on international social work research studies increased from 4.1% in 1995–1999 to 9.5% in 2000–2004 ; for the same time periods international social work research in social work research journals ( Social Service Review and Research...

Technology

Technology   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...These changes were often devastating for hospital social workers whose jobs were restructured around cost savings rather than quality services. A similar impact concerns the outsourcing of social work jobs. Due to costs, health care is being outsourced to countries such as India and Thailand (Wachter, 2006 ). With the GHSI mentioned under connectivity, the outsourcing of services is possible and likely (see challenges below). Intelligent Applications and Devices Intelligent applications were defined earlier as those that accumulate and manage knowledge...

HIV/AIDS

HIV/AIDS   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...however, tremendous political resistance to the implementation of sound science is directly responsible for monumental unnecessary morbidity and mortality. Criminalization of syringe exchange programs in the United States and elsewhere, criminalization of “homosexual behavior” in India, China, and many African and Middle Eastern countries, and continuing stigma and discrimination against MSM across Asia, Africa, and in the United States result in immense unnecessary harm. There is no biomedical solution for hatred and discrimination. Beyond a vaccine, the...

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