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Overview

India

Subject: History

The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growth India's vast territory can be divided into three main regions ...

India

India   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,263 words

...to be very effective at alleviating India's unconscionable poverty and its human costs; nor are they likely to do away with all the violence that the contest over India's national identity has generated in the last decade. Indian democracy will remain a paradoxical combination of unyielding self assertion and human deprivation. Foreign Policy. India's foreign policy was persistently governed by a belief in alignments, although during the Cold War it was somewhat closer to the Soviet Union. Since Independence, India's relations with its neighbors, Pakistan...

India

India   Reference library

Christopher Candland

The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,605 words

... The word “India” is a European invention derived from the river Indus, which runs through what is now Pakistan. Indians refer to India as “Bharat.” India is the birthplace of three major religions—Hinduism, Buddhism, and Sikhism—and is home to more than 150 million Muslims. India borders Pakistan and the Arabian Sea to the west; Bhutan, China, Nepal, and the Himalayan mountain range to the north; Bangladesh, Myanmar, and the Bay of Bengal to the east; and the Indian Ocean to the south. The Maldives and Sri Lanka lie to the south in the Indian Ocean. India...

India

India   Reference library

Christopher Candland

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,609 words

... The word “India” is a European invention derived from the river Indus, which runs through what is now Pakistan. Indians refer to India as “Bharat.” India is the birthplace of three major religions—Hinduism, Buddhism, and Sikhism—and is home to more than 150 million Muslims. India borders Pakistan and the Arabian Sea to the west; Bhutan, China, Nepal, and the Himalayan mountain range to the north; Bangladesh, Myanmar, and the Bay of Bengal to the east; and the Indian Ocean to the south. The Maldives and Sri Lanka lie to the south in the Indian Ocean. India...

India

India   Reference library

Barbara D. Metcalf

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,787 words

...Gandhi opposed Partition to the end. Many hoped that Partition would end communal violence. The Republic of India. In the horrific course of the Partition of British India, as many as 12 to 18 million people may have migrated; perhaps a million others died. The rulers of the various princely states, abandoned by Britain, were forced to make a choice of India or Pakistan. The Hindu rulers of Kashmir, adjoining both India and Pakistan, had notoriously discriminated against their Muslim majority population. While the maharaja vacillated, Pakistani...

All-India Services

All-India Services   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Politics and International Relations in India

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
59 words

...India Services A term encapsulating India’s civil services. It comprises the Indian Administrative Service (which handles government affairs and policy), the Indian Forest Service (which manages India’s forests), and the Indian Police Service (which looks after internal security, law and order, and public safety). It was set up by Vallabhbhai Patel . See also Union Public Service Commission...

Partition of India

Partition of India (1947)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Politics and International Relations in India

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
136 words

...of India ( 1947 ) The splitting of British India into modern-day India and modern-day Pakistan based on Hindu or Muslim majorities. Occurring after the success of the independence movement , it was premised upon the divisive Mountbatten Plan , and was accompanied by widespread Hindu–Muslim communal violence that led to over a million deaths, as an estimated 10–15 million people changed lands. On this basis, it is one of the worst human catastrophes of the twentieth century. It was the precursor to ongoing conflict between India and Pakistan...

‘Make in India’

‘Make in India’   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Politics and International Relations in India

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
82 words

...in India’ An initiative crafted by the government of Narendra Modi in 2014 to encourage Indian and multinational companies to manufacture their products in India. It also seeks to facilitate higher rates of foreign direct investment , create jobs, enhance the skills of the Indian workforce, and increase production standards. It is designed to augment India’s global economic presence, facilitate better links with other countries, and underscore free-market economics as the driving force behind the country’s great-power ...

All India Trinamool Congress

All India Trinamool Congress   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Politics and International Relations in India

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
106 words

...India Trinamool Congress (Bengali: ‘All India Grassroots Congress’) A centre-left political party. It was established in 1998 in West Bengal and is predominantly based in states in India’s north-east, but has a national presence. It is committed to enhancing national development and making India a great power , and was the fourth-largest party in the Lok Sabha after the 2014 general election. It has formed various political alliances with the National Democratic Alliance (from 1999 to 2001 ), the United Progressive Alliance (from 2009 to...

Election Commission of India

Election Commission of India   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Politics and International Relations in India

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
148 words

...Commission of India An authority responsible for the running of elections in India. Its Charter is consecrated under Article 342 of the Constitution , which gives it autonomy and freedom from political interests. It administers democratic elections to the Lok Sabha , the Rajya Sabha , and state legislative assemblies, as well as for the position of president and vice president, and its principal duty is to ensure that these are held in a free and fair manner. It is predominantly staffed by officers from the Indian Administrative Service . The ...

Communist Party of India (Marxist)

Communist Party of India (Marxist)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Politics and International Relations in India

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
115 words

...Party of India (Marxist) A political party. It was established in 1964 after splitting away from the Communist Party of India, and is the largest and most successful communist party in India, having led state governments in Kerala, West Bengal, and Tripura. Its major political principles relate to socialism , secularism , and democracy , along with Marxism, and it has formed various political alliances within the United Front , and was part of the Indian National Congress -led United Progressive Alliance from 2004 to 2008 before it...

All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam

All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Politics and International Relations in India

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
121 words

...India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (Tamil: ‘All India Anna Dravidian Progress Federation’) A political party. It was established in 1972 after breaking away from the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam , and principally represents the Tamil community and Tamil language in Tamil Nadu and Pondicherry, which is linguistically differentiated from the Indo-Aryan languages of northern, eastern, and western India. From 1989 to 2016 it was led by J. Jayalalithaa , and has enjoyed consistent electoral success in Tamil Nadu. It has formed various political...

India-Brazil-South Africa Dialogue Forum

India-Brazil-South Africa Dialogue Forum ((in relation to India))   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Politics and International Relations in India

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
118 words

...-Brazil-South Africa Dialogue Forum (in relation to India) An international cross-regional grouping formed in June 2003 to increase trilateral cooperation between the post-colonial states of India, Brazil, and South Africa. It was founded upon positive synergies concerning trade, defence, and environmental issues, and a common desire to create a more equitable and representative world order. Particular importance is given to members’ shared democratic , multiracial, and multicultural characteristics, as well as a united aspiration to promote the...

Brazil-Russia-India-China-South Africa

Brazil-Russia-India-China-South Africa ((in relation to India))   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Politics and International Relations in India

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
115 words

...India-China-South Africa ( BRICS ) (in relation to India) An international grouping representing the global interests of several major emergent developing economies. It was initially formed in 2009 and consisted of Brazil, Russia, India, and China before South Africa joined in 2010 . All of its members are keen to achieve the status of great power , and have a shared vision of a preferred world order based on non-interference , multipolarity , development and equality, and opposition to hegemony . Their strength in numbers, and their...

India, relations

India, relations (with China)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Politics and International Relations in China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
169 words

...India, relations ( with China ) A bilateral interaction. Relations between China and India were initially close through a shared adherence to socialism , anti-imperialism , and the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence , but they worsened after the war with India (1962) and the Lop Nor nuclear tests (1964) . Typifying these differences are long-standing border disputes relating to Arunachal Pradesh (Southern Tibet) , economic competition, and the leadership of the ‘Asian Century ’. The two countries’ signing of a strategic partnership in 2005 ,...

India–Australia

India–Australia   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,215 words

...engagement with India has followed international perceptions that India is one of the BRICs ( Brazil, Russia, India, and China ) having very high rates of economic growth that are predicted to continue for the coming decades. In recent years, Australia has benefited from growing Indian prosperity; commodity exports to India now exceed those to the United Kingdom. In 2004 exports almost doubled, and India ranked as Australia's thirteenth trade partner. India now ranks as Australia's sixth most important export destination. India has not benefited...

India–United States Relations

India–United States Relations   Reference library

Neil DeVotta

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
6,300 words

...Contemporary India . 2d ed., edited by Neil DeVotta, pp. 95–122. (Boulder, Colo., 2010). Kapur, S. Paul. “India and the United States from World War II to the Present: A Relationship Transformed.” In India’s Foreign Policy: Retrospect and Prospect , edited by Sumit Ganguly, pp. 251–274. (New Delhi, India, 2010). Kirk, Jason A. “ India’s Season of Discontent: U.S-India Relations through the Prism of Obama’s ‘Af-Pak’ Policy, Year One. ” Asian Affairs: An American Review 37 (2010): 147–166. Kux, Dennis. Estranged Democracies: India and the United...

war with India (1962)

war with India (1962)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Politics and International Relations in China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
115 words

...war with India (1962) A conflict between China and India in October/November 1962 . It was initiated by China concerning disputes over the sovereignty of Aksai Chin and Arunachal Pradesh , which stemmed from badly demarcated borders dating from the British occupation of India, and the perceived Line of Actual Control . The war was a great power conflict concerning regional pre-eminence. It was quickly won by China, led to the deaths of thousands of ill-equipped Indian troops, and was a military humiliation that has had a lasting impact on India’s attitude...

Principal Office Holders, India

Principal Office Holders, India   Quick reference

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
196 words

...Office Holders, India President Jan. 1949 Rajendra Prasad May 1962 Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan May 1967 Zahir Hussain May 1969 Varahgiri Giri (acting) July 1969 Mohammed Hidayatullah (acting) Aug. 1969 Varahgiri Giri Aug. 1974 Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed Feb. 1977 Basappa Jatti (acting) July 1977 N. Sanjiva Reddy July 1982 G. Zail Singh July 1987 Ramaswami Venkatamaran July 1992 Shankar Dayal Sharma July 1997 K. R. Narayanan July 2002 Abdul Kalam July 2007 Pratibha Patil July 2012 Pranab Mukherjee Prime Minister Aug. 1947 Jawaharal Nehru Congress May 1964...

All-India Muslim League

All-India Muslim League   Reference library

David Taylor

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,168 words

...at the national level were represented by conservative loyalists. By the mid-1930s, the political environment had changed substantially following the civil disobedience campaign by the Congress, and the 1935 Government of India Act appeared to presage an elected government at the all-India level. The possibility that the government in India might represent the Congress's views and attitudes and emphasize either secular or Hindu values forced a rethinking of the Muslim position. Jinnah, seen as having the negotiating skills and contacts to represent the Muslim...

Brazil-Russia-India-China-South Africa

Brazil-Russia-India-China-South Africa (in relation to China)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Politics and International Relations in China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
114 words

...Brazil-Russia-India-China-South Africa ( BRICS ) ( in relation to China ) An international grouping representing the global interests of several major emergent developing economies. It was initially formed in 2009 and consisted of Brazil, Russia, India, and China before South Africa joined in 2010 . All of its members are keen to become great powers and have a shared vision of a preferred world order based on their support of non-interference , multipolarity (duojihua) , development, equality, and opposition to hegemony . Their strength in...

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