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Overview

India

Subject: History

The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growth India's vast territory can be divided into three main regions ...

India

India   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
349 words

... The world’s second most populous country and seventh-largest by land area. Located in mainland South Asia , historically it was home to the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. Four of the world's major religions—Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism—also originated there. From the early 18th century, large parts of India came under the control of one of the world’s largest trading companies of the era, the British East India Company. Later, it was administered directly by Britain. This period saw the transfer en masse of British and other European...

Partition

Partition   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...When the British left India in 1947 , they partitioned the country, creating the separate countries of India and Pakistan to accommodate religious differences between Muslims and Hindus. Pakistan has a majority Muslim population and India is primarily Hindu. See M. Hasan (1994) for a collection of essays, extracts, memoirs, and a short story to create an outline of the events preceding and surrounding India’s Partition. http://postcolonialstudies.emory.edu/partition-of-india/#ixzz2r27reITR Partition in postcolonial...

elites

elites   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...influence public and private policy. Ahmed (2009) Hum. Geog. 2, 3, 37 shows how the coercive power of global governance institutions has worked in tandem with the interests of local elites to produce neoliberal changes in India. Ahmed also points out that class elites are not a homogeneous group in India...

offshoring

offshoring   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...For businesses, the transference of portions of their work to outside, foreign suppliers rather than completing at home. Frequently, work is offshored in order to reduce labour expenses. See James and Vira (2012) J. Econ. Geog. 12, 4, 841 on offshoring and India’s service economy. See also nearshoring...

agriculture, sustainable

agriculture, sustainable   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...is a nebulous and slippery resource for thought and practice, one able to marshal together a range of competing, and indeed contradictory, narratives about society–nature relations’. However, India’s Centre for Sustainable Agriculture is much more confident and outlines a number of strategies. http://www.csa-india.org/ Website of Centre for Sustainable Agriculture, India...

shit, geographies of

shit, geographies of   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...sanitation initiatives, where they exist, often prioritize flush and discharge systems over low-cost or community-based alternatives. In 2012, the Census Commissioner of India reported that about 600 million Indians practise open-air defecation. http://www.wsp.org/sites/wsp.org/files/publications/WSP-esi-india.pdf Online version of ‘Economic Impacts of Inadequate Sanitation in India...

basement

basement   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... ( crystalline basement ) Rocks below a sedimentary platform or cover, that are metamorphic or igneous in origin. Nageswara et al. (2012) Zeitschr. Geom. discuss the possible influence of the basement framework in shaping the Krishna-Godavari deltas in India...

gross reproduction rate

gross reproduction rate   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...per thousand women of reproductive age. The net reproduction rate also takes into account the number of women who cannot or do not wish to have children; in the UK, the cohort net reproduction rate in 2011 was 1.02 children per woman (NISRA, 2011 ), while in India in 2011 it was 3.0 (Census India, 2011...

gaze

gaze   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...2002 ). Different people will gaze at a landscape and ‘see’ different features according to—among others—their gender, race, class, age, and sexuality. Thus, the male gaze looks at things from the perspective of a heterosexual man. D. Arnold ( 2006 ) outlines the ways in which India’s material environment became increasingly subject to the colonial gaze at Indian...

spectacle

spectacle   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...For example, Cinquegrani (2010) looks at the ways in which early films, as much as photography and colonial exhibitions, transported the spectators to a version of India existing in great part as the creation of unchecked British imagination; the ‘Imperial Spectacle’. Thomas (2007) Cult. Geogs 14, 3, 369 on the clothing (the ‘lived garment’) of Lady Curzon, Vicereine of India 1898–1905 is strangely...

crop rotation

crop rotation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...certain rotations, plants like legumes (peas and beans) are grown to restore fertility. See D. Stone ( 2005 ) on medieval agriculture, and Sainju et al. (2006) J. Env. Qual. 35 on contemporary practice. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Farming_systems_in_India Wikipedia entry about crop rotation in India...

reforestation

reforestation   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...previously wooded area that has been felled; the implicit assumption is that the restoration will succeed reforestation. See Vallauri et al. (2002) Restoration Ecol. 10, 1 . Bhagwat et al. (2014) Forest Ecol. & Manag. (in press) see the reforestation in the Western Ghats of India as a cultural...

geodynamics

geodynamics   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...A subfield of geophysics dealing with dynamics of the Earth’s lithosphere and mantle and, using data from geodetic GPS, InSAR, seismology, and numerical models. For example, White and Lister (2012) J. Geodynamics 7 , review the relative motion of India and Asia for the last 100 million...

G-20

G-20   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... ( Group of Twenty ) A group of twenty of the most important economies on the planet. It includes nineteen independent countries along with the European Union: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France † , Germany † , India, Indonesia, Italy † , Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, United Kingdom † , United States, European Union. † = also a member of the...

bustee

bustee   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... ( basti ) In India, a shanty town ; reading S. Mehta ( 2005 ) should be mandatory. N. Islam ( 1996 ) estimates that almost 50% of Dhaka’s population live in bustees, and a major portion of this population is female. To combat negative views of bustees, see Mahmud (2003) Cities 20, 5...

peace, geographies of

peace, geographies of   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

..., this is a way of thinking geographically about world politics in order to promote peaceful and mutually enriching human coexistence ( Megoran (2010) TIBG 35, 3, 382 ). Williams (2013) AAAG 103, 1, 230 has a practical article on reproducing everyday peace in north India...

fecundity

fecundity   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...The potential of a woman/women to bear live children. Fecundity in a population is, of course, closely linked to the proportion of women of childbearing age. See Bhalotra and van Soest (2006) IZA Dis. Paper 2163 on fertility and neonatal mortality in India...

Gondwanaland

Gondwanaland   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...A ‘supercontinent’: a continuous land surface formed of the now separate units of Africa, Madagascar, Antarctica, Australia, and India. Gondwanaland started in the earliest Paleozoic at the break-up of a Late Proterozoic supercontinent ( Veevers (1988) Geology 16, 8 ), and assembled by 650–570 Ma. See Veevers (2003) Geology 31, 6...

hinterland

hinterland   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...The area serving, and being served by, a settlement. Kaushik (2013) Int. J. Sci. Engineering & Res. ( IJSER ) 1 3 cites the example of Agra (India) and its fertile hinterland. An information hinterland is the region for which a city provides the best access to information flows ( Wang et al. (2007) Tijdschrift 98, 1 ). See Baldacchino (2006) Asia Pac. Viewpt 47, 1...

hunting and gathering

hunting and gathering   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...of animals, and which has little impact on the environment. The hunting of animals and the collection of edible plants depend on adapting to the environment, rather than changing it. See T. Ingold ( 2000 ). Try R. K. Guatam ( 2011 ) on the Baigas hunter-gatherers of Central India...

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