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Overview

India

Subject: History

The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growth India's vast territory can be divided into three main regions ...

India and Environmental Change

India and Environmental Change   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

... and Environmental Change On a world map in which a country's size is proportional to its population, India looms large. If on that same map countries with higher rates of population growth are colored pink, and those with lower rates of growth are colored green, India becomes even more prominent than China, inviting Malthusian concerns over environmental pressures. Ten percent of the human race (half of India's population) lives in the Ganges valley, and the world's greatest concentration of human poverty is centered in the downstream states of Uttar...

Climate Change Communication in India

Climate Change Communication in India   Reference library

Jagadish Thaker

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...into Jairam Ramesh’s statement at Cancun: PM. The Times of India . Retrieved from http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/Dont-read-too-much-into-Jairam-Rameshs-statement-at-Cancun-PM/articleshow/7079607.cms . Raghunandan, D. (2011). India’s official position: A critical view based on science. In N. Dubash (Ed.), Handbook of climate change and India: Development, politics, and governance (pp. 170–179). New Delhi: Oxford University Press. Rajan, M. G. (1997). Global environmental politics: India and the North-South politics of global environment issues ....

Hooker, Sir Joseph Dalton

Hooker, Sir Joseph Dalton (1817–1911)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...by Sir James Ross ( 1800–62 ). On his return, in 1843 , Hooker published Flora Antarctica ( 1844–7 ), Flora Novae Zelandiae ( 1853–5 ), and Flora Tasmanica ( 1855–60 ). He explored the northern frontiers of India ( 1847–51 ), and published the Flora of British India ( 1855–97 ). The large number of rhododendrons he brought from India provided raw materials for many hybrids, which became popular ornamentals, transforming many British gardens. He prepared the fifth and sixth editions of Bentham ’s Handbook of the British Flora , which then became...

Indian Ocean

Indian Ocean   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Ocean One of the world’s major oceans, lying between Africa, India, and Australia. It has a surface area of 77 million km 2 and an average depth of 3872 m. The ocean receives a great deal of sediment from three of the world’s major rivers (the Ganges, the Indus, and the...

Indo-Malesian rain forest

Indo-Malesian rain forest   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...rain forest The rain forest found in western India and Sri Lanka, parts of continental south-east Asia, the Malay Peninsula, and the Malay archipelago, with outliers in Queensland, Australia. It is differentiated from the other rain forests by its floristic composition. Large areas of the Indo-Malesian rain forest have been cleared. See African rain forest ; American rain forest...

Oriental faunal region

Oriental faunal region   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...faunal region The area that encompasses India and Asia south of the Himalayan–Tibetan mountain barrier, and the Australasian archipelago, excluding New Guinea and the Sulawesi. There are marked similarities with the Ethiopian faunal region (e.g. both have elephants and rhinoceroses) but there are endemic ( see endemism ) groups (e.g. pandas and...

arroyo

arroyo   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...A gully found along valley floors in an arid or semi-arid region and possessing steep or vertical walls cut in fine-grained cohesive sediments. The floor is flat and usually sandy. Arroyos are found especially in the south-western United States, parts of India, South Africa, and around the...

Gondwana

Gondwana   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...A former supercontinent of the southern hemisphere from which South America, Africa, India, Australasia, and Antarctica are derived. Their earlier connection explains why related groups of plants and animals are found in more than one of the now widely separated southern land masses; examples include the conifer Araucaria (monkey puzzle, Chile pine, hoop pine, etc.) common to South America and Australia. Throughout Gondwana there existed floristic assemblages represented by a few species of fossil plants that are thought to have grown in a cold...

dry season

dry season   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...season A period each year during which there is little precipitation. In tropical climates (e.g. over much of India) the dry period is often in the winter season. In places in very low latitudes two dry seasons may occur each year, between the northward and southward passage of the equatorial rains. In subtropical, Mediterranean, and west-coast climates, the dry season is in the...

bunt

bunt   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... spores which have a characteristic fishy smell; the spores are released when the wheat crop is harvested. Dwarf bunt is a similar disease caused by T. contraversa ( T. brevifaciens ). Karnal bunt is caused by Neovossia indica ( Tilletia indica ); it occurs in northern India, Afghanistan, Iraq, and...

Kyoto Progress

Kyoto Progress   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
928 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Canada, India, Australia, China, South Korea, and Japan. The idea is said to be Australian-inspired but U.S.-led and is intended to bring together the world's largest emitters of greenhouse gases, India and China being exempted from the 2008–2012 targets, and Australia and the United States being Annex I nations that declined to ratify the treaty because India and China were not compelled to monitor and reduce their emissions. The group of 7 nations now accounts for over half of the world's emissions per year. One of the stated goals is to help India and...

Laurasia

Laurasia   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...the line of the northern Atlantic Ocean and the Tethys sea . Laurasia included what was to become North America, Greenland, Europe, Asia, and Malesia east to Sulawesi, while the large, southern continental mass (called Gondwana ) was later to divide into South America, Africa, India, Australasia, Malesia east of Sulawesi, and Antarctica. Fossil evidence indicates that the Laurasian floral assemblage included many species of tropical plants that were incorporated into sediments to form the extensive coal measures that are mined throughout Europe and the...

Glossopteris flora

Glossopteris flora   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... Glossopteris , which gives its name to the flora, is characterized by a leaf with a fairly well defined midrib and a reticulate (net-like) venation. G. indica is the last species referred to the genus and to the family Glossopteridales. It is known from the Triassic of India...

Suess, Eduard

Suess, Eduard (1831–1914)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Eduard ( 1831–1914 ) An Austrian geologist who was the first to propose the existence of a former supercontinent that he called Gondwanaland (now called Gondwana ), and the Tethys Ocean . He also discovered the Glossopteris flora in South America, Africa, and India. He summarized his ideas in his book Das Antlitz der Erde ( The Face of the Earth ), published between 1885 and 1901 . In that book he coined the term biosphere , an idea later developed by V. I. Vernadsky . Suess was born in London, the son of a merchant, was professor of...

Developing Countries

Developing Countries   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
6,595 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Environment and Forests, India's GHG Emissions Profile, 2009 ) by 2030 . The composition of India's GHG emissions mirrors its economic activities. The energy sector contributes 1.2 billion tons of its total 1.7 billion net DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, INDIA. Figure 1. India's greenhouse gas emissions by sector (tons CO 2 eq), 2007 . Source: (From Ministry of Environment and Forests, India. Greenhouse Gas Emissions, 2007.) tons ( Figure 1 ). Methane emissions, largely from agriculture, contribute 33 percent of GHG emissions. India has grown its net forest...

Malthus, Thomas Robert

Malthus, Thomas Robert (1766–1834)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Thomas Robert ( 1766–1834 ) An English mathematician and economist , who took holy orders in 1788 and was appointed in 1805 to the first professorship of political economy in Britain, at Haileybury College, founded by the East India Company, a position he occupied until his death. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society and a member of the French Institute and Berlin Royal Academy. He is best remembered for An Essay on the Principle of Population, as it affects the future improvement of society , written to refute the ideas on social and...

ice ages

ice ages   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...There is good evidence for a glaciation at the end of the Ordovician in North Africa, but glacial deposits described from elsewhere at this period are problematical, so the extent of the glaciation is not known. The Permo-Carboniferous glaciation of South America, South Africa, India, and Australia was widespread and is well documented. There is no evidence for further glaciation until the Quaternary . Suggestions have been made for other ice ages during the Palaeozoic but evidence for them is sparse. The Pleistocene ice age is the best...

Asia

Asia   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,894 words
Illustration(s):
1

...tip of India and southeastern Bangladesh by the beginning of June and by the end of June covering all of north India. The average retreat occurs in mid-September in the north and mid-October over southern India. [ See Monsoons .] The summertime temperature maximum at midtropospheric altitudes centered over the Tibetan Plateau is the key factor for the climatic transitions that take place over India in early summer. The higher temperatures here create a high-altitude maximum of atmospheric pressure and the westerly jet shifts northward of India. The...

Biological Realms

Biological Realms   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,079 words
Illustration(s):
2

...southern beeches ( Nothofagus ), which are disjunct across the southern continents despite poor mechanisms for dispersal. The separation of South America and Africa probably began in the lower Cretaceous (127 million years ago), Madagascar and India broke away in the mid-Cretaceous (100 million years ago), with India becoming isolated in the late Cretaceous (80 million years ago). At about this time, New Zealand began to drift away from Antarctica, with the rift between Australia and Antarctica occurring in the Eocene (49 million years ago). The breakup of...

Walker, Gilbert

Walker, Gilbert   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...variability. His academic career started with a Fellowship at Trinity College, Cambridge (where he read mathematics as an undergraduate) in 1891 . For his work on various dynamical problems, he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1904 . In the same year he went to India to become the second Director-General of Observatories and remained in this post, employing his great organizational and administrative skills, until he reached retirement age in 1924 . He was awarded a knighthood in that year. He then became Professor of Meteorology at Imperial...

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