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India

Subject: History

The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growth India's vast territory can be divided into three main regions ...

India

India   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
11,312 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Order: State, Society and Ideology in Early Medieval India . New Delhi, 1999. Kulke, Hermann . The State in India, 1000–1700 . Delhi, 1995. Liu Xinru . Ancient India and Ancient China: Trade and Religious Exchanges, AD 1–600 . Delhi, 1994. Ludden, David . An Agrarian History of South Asia. In The New Cambridge History of India , vol. 4. Cambridge, 1999. McCrindle, John Watson . The Commerce and Navigation of the Erythraean Sea . Amsterdam, 1973. Randhawa, M. S. A History of Agriculture in India . 4 vols. Delhi, 1986. Ray, Himanshu P. The Winds of...

India’s Growth Turnaround

India’s Growth Turnaround   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,852 words
Illustration(s):
2

...be attributed to some combination of a common shift in s t India and state-wise differences in the α i . A differential impact of the all-India shock might be attributed to different values of α i ; with non-V states, by implication, having α i values extremely close to zero, thus closing off any convergence response. Agenda for Future Research Research on India’s growth turnaround needs to move beyond its empiricist nature and towards a theoretical model of India’s growth pattern. Given India’s economic planning history and the empirical evidence it would...

Reserve Bank of India

Reserve Bank of India   Reference library

T.C.A. Srinivasa-Raghavan

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...of India The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is India’s central bank. It manages India’s monetary and exchange rate policies and public debt, that is, the borrowings of the central and state governments. The regulation of commercial banking is another of its key responsibilities. Between 1935 and 1949, when it was nationalized, RBI was a private entity. Until 1950, since ‘finance’ was a ‘reserved’ subject for the Government of India, monetary policy was made by the government, while the Imperial Bank of India (nationalized and renamed the State Bank of India in...

State Bank of India

State Bank of India   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...Bank of India Genesis and Organization The State Bank of India is India’s oldest and largest commercial bank. It is lineally descended from the Bank of Calcutta, which was set up in 1806 (27 March) ( Bagchi 1987 : part I, p. 66) as a purely government-owned bank run by officials of the (English) East India Company. The latter had by then become the paramount power in the subcontinent. It was transformed into the Bank of Bengal, a joint-stock bank with limited liability, with effect from 2 January 1809 (ibid.: 97). The privilege of limited liability for...

International Migration from India: Economic Impact

International Migration from India: Economic Impact   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...much more sensitive to India’s credit risk as assessed by foreign ratings agencies, while the former are more blasè about sovereign risk when they put money into India. The one clear case when NRI withdrawals amplified India’s BOP crisis in 1991 appears to have been driven by the perception of an impending devaluation rather than credit risk per se. When storm clouds threatened, as in the aftermath of the Asian financial crisis in 1997 and India’s nuclear tests in 1998, India raised funds from its diaspora: US$ 4.2 billion from the India Resurgent Bonds (RIBs)...

Entrepreneurs in India and Abroad

Entrepreneurs in India and Abroad   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...more capital for growth through a stock market listing. India too has examples of professionals turned first generation entrepreneurs, including the huge success of Infosys Technologies and Biocon. But the proportion, and perhaps even the total number, of professionals starting enterprises in India is far lower than in the US. This is in a way reflected in the IT industry itself, the breeding ground for many Indian entrepreneurs in the US. Anecdotal evidence suggests that most such companies in India are controlled by business families and foreign entities,...

East India Company

East India Company   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Economics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
97 words

...East India Company A joint-stock company, granted a Royal Charter on 31 December 1600 as the ‘Company of Merchants of London trading into the East Indies’. The company continually expanded its trading operations, frequently with the help of its private security force, and eventually gained control of a large part of the Indian subcontinent along with a significant presence in China. After a series of financial difficulties the Indian possessions of the company were nationalized in 1859 , and it was shut down in 1874 . The East India Company is often...

Reserve Bank of India

Reserve Bank of India   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Economics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
123 words

...Reserve Bank of India The Indian central bank which was established in 1935 in Calcutta and permanently moved to Mumbai in 1937 . It was originally a privately owned bank but was nationalized in 1949 and is now fully owned by the Indian government. The bank is governed by a central board of directors appointed by the government for a period of four years. It acts as the monetary authority, the regulator and supervisor of the financial system, the manager of foreign exchange, and the issuer of currency. Its other functions include banking for central and...

National Stock Exchange of India

National Stock Exchange of India   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Finance and Banking (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...Stock Exchange of India ( NSE ) A stock exchange in Mumbai, established by a group of leading financial institutions in 1993 . It now trades in equities, debt, futures, and options. The main index is the S&P CNX...

National Stock Exchange of India

National Stock Exchange of India   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Finance and Banking (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Stock Exchange of India ( NSE ) A stock exchange in Mumbai, established by a group of leading financial institutions in 1993 . It now trades in equities, debt, and derivatives (including index futures ). The main index is the S&P CNX Nifty....

National Stock Exchange of India

National Stock Exchange of India   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Economics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
47 words

...National Stock Exchange of India A stock exchange, incorporated in 1992 , with headquarters in Mumbai, providing a market for trade in equity, derivatives, and debt instruments. In January 2016 it had a market capitalization of US $ 1.35 trillion. http://www.nseindia.com The home page of the NSE of India...

National Institution for Transforming India

National Institution for Transforming India   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Economics (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
53 words

...National Institution for Transforming India A government institution created in 2015 as the successor to the Planning Commission. The Institution has the objective of providing a general framework for the national development agenda, designing policies and programmes for economic progress and development, and monitoring their implementation. http://niti.gov.in The official website of NITI Aayog....

Securities and Exchange Board of India

Securities and Exchange Board of India (India)   Reference library

The Handbook of International Financial Terms

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...and Exchange Board of India ( SEBI ) (India) . Regulatory body responsible for overseeing the trading of securities on Indian exchanges ( cf. Bombay Stock Exchange ). Its power and functions are modelled on the United States' Securities and Exchange Commission and the UK's Securities Investment Board...

Securities and Exchange Board of India

Securities and Exchange Board of India  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(SEBI) (India).Regulatory body responsible for overseeing the trading of securities on Indian exchanges (cf. Bombay Stock Exchange). Its power and functions are modelled on the United States' ...
National Stock Exchange of India

National Stock Exchange of India  

Reference type:
Overview Page
(NSE)A stock exchange in Mumbai, established by a group of leading financial institutions in 1993. It now trades in equities, debt, futures, and options. The main index is the S&P CNX Nifty.
Defence Strategy

Defence Strategy   Reference library

Bajpai Kanti

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...1947 to 1962, India’s strategy was one of minimum conventional defence focused on holding territory. Within weeks of Independence, India and Pakistan fought over the state of Jammu and Kashmir, a war that dragged on well into 1948. By the late 1950s, there was a good chance that India would also be involved in a confrontation over the contested border with China. Thus, within a decade, India faced a two-front military problem. Broadly, India’s posture in this period was one of stopping attacks on its territory and repelling the invader. India did not expect...

Defence Expenditure

Defence Expenditure   Reference library

Tanya Sethi and Reddy C. Rammanohar

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...towards developing nuclear weapons. Table 1 presents two different sets of estimates of India’s defence expenditure between 1998–9 and 2010–11.The alternative and more inclusive estimate of India’s defence outlays is 30–40 per cent higher than the official figure. The alternative estimate is only indicative, but the true level of India’s defence spending is likely to be closer to the alternative than the official estimate. The trend emerging from Table 1 is that India’s military spending as a percentage of GDP jumped after the 1998 decision to go nuclear and...

Services-led Growth

Services-led Growth   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,122 words
Illustration(s):
8

...coverage. There is also no information available on price indices for India’s service sector, as India’s Wholesale Price Index does not cover services. There are efforts underway to improve statistical measurement and coverage of services under the aegis of a National Statistical Commission. Trade in India’s Service Sector 3 The contribution of services to India’s trade and FDI flows has also been growing over the past decade, facilitating India’s integration with the world economy. India’s services exports have grown from a mere $2.9 billion in 1980 to $16.7...

Brain Drain

Brain Drain   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...of residence. At the same time, with economic growth in India, one is also seeing the emergence of reverse brain drain, with the entrance of Indians and foreign nationals into India. Over the past decade, the costs of brain drain from India have been significant. In the United Nations Human Development Report 2001 , the cost of brain drain to India was estimated to reach $2 billion in lost resources annually (United Nations 2001). The cost of emigration of professionals is particularly high in India due to the relatively low percentage of qualified...

Jawaharlal Nehru

Jawaharlal Nehru   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...consumer industries, which they argued would accelerate growth rates by making India an export-based economy. For Nehru rapid economic growth was never an end in itself; equally important were the values of autonomy and democracy. And, in the context of an international system polarized by the Cold War, Nehru was wary of India losing its political autonomy through economic choices. Resting India’s economic development on exports of consumer goods would, Nehru judged, weaken India’s new-won independence (and on the evidence of those countries that did choose the...

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