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India

Subject: History

The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growth India's vast territory can be divided into three main regions ...

Plagues and Epidemics

Plagues and Epidemics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Current Version:
2005

...numbers in Asia and Middle East. Later outbreaks of bubonic plague Over a dozen outbreaks in Europe during the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. Outbreaks in China and India at the turn of the twentieth century. " Y. pestis " Major cities such as London and Paris were repeatedly devastated. At least 100,000 deaths in London in 1665 . Millions died more recently in India and China. “Sweating sickness” Five outbreaks between 1485–1551 in England, also spread in the rest of Europe. Headache, high fever, severe sweating Unknown, probably viral. No...

Haldane, John Burdon Sanderson

Haldane, John Burdon Sanderson   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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...of selection required to substitute an allele in a population depended on its initial frequency, not on the intensity of selection. This principle was used by the geneticist Motoo Kimura in his initial argument for the neutral theory of molecular evolution. Haldane emigrated to India in 1956 , eventually becoming an Indian citizen. He died there of cancer in Bhubaneshwar in 1964 . Besides his scientific work, Haldane was a prolific science popularizer. In one such work, Daedalus ( 1922 ), he raised the possibility of ectopic birth (outside the body). For...

Linnaeus, Carolus

Linnaeus, Carolus   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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...extensive Dutch natural history collections that were some of the most impressive of the day. Part of that time he served as superintendent of the garden to one of the major collectors of Holland, George Clifford ( 1685–1760 ), a wealthy financier and director of the Dutch East India Company. In Clifford's gardens (and private zoo) Linnaeus studied living specimens from southern Europe, Asia, Africa, and the New World. It was a time of great excitement in natural history, as Europeans were encountering thousands of new species of plants and animals, plus many...

Vaccination

Vaccination   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
2,814 words
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1

...what fraction of the population must be vaccinated to eradicate an infectious disease. For example, why was smallpox eradicated with mass vaccination reaching 80 percent of the population in West and Central Africa, but these same levels of mass vaccination were not sufficient in India and other Asian countries? A single parameter that captures all the different aspects of the host–parasite interaction has proved extremely useful in such discussions. The basic reproductive ratio, or R 0 , it is defined as the number of secondary cases caused by one infectious...

Language

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Encyclopedia of Evolution

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2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
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6,265 words
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...Diversity and Recent Human Evolution Phylogenetics of language. The idea that languages could be placed in phylogenies (or “family trees,” as they are known in linguistics) stems back to Sir William Jones . He asserted in 1786 that Sanskrit, parent to many of the languages of India, bore such a resemblance to Greek and Latin that they could only have sprung from a common source. That source was the long-disappeared Proto-Indo-European, and the tree connecting it to its many descendants across Europe and Asia was soon sketched. The result influenced both...

Amphibians

Amphibians   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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2005
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Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
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4,277 words
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...and Nussbaum, 1996; and Wilkinson, 1997. Table 1. Geographical Distribution of the Major Extant Groups of Amphibia Taxon Distribution G ymnophiona Rhinatrematidae Northern South America Ichthyophiidae India, Sri Lanka, and Southeast Asia Uraeotyphlidae South India Scolecomorphidae Africa “Caeciliaidae” Mexico, Central and South America; Africa, Seychelles, India, and Southeast Asia Typhlonectidae South America C audata Hynobiidae Continental Asia to Japan Sirenidae Eastern United States and adjacent Mexico Cryptobranchidae China, Japan, and eastern United...

Human Families and Kin Groups

Human Families and Kin Groups   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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...be taken as a second wife by a warrior. In European history, royal marriages were sometimes contracted for political alliances only, without intent of sexual relations. In Catholic doctrine, celibate nuns are considered to be married to the deity. Among the matrilineal Nayar of India, a girl went through a marriage ceremony with a man she might never see again, before beginning her sexual and reproductive life by taking lovers. In the contemporary United States, lobbying for “gay marriage” of same-sex couples, without one partner necessarily taking the social...

Lamarckism

Lamarckism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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...natural selection, but there is probably also a role for Lamarckism, not as a rival to Darwin's evolutionary theory but as part of it. See also Lamarck, Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet . Blacher, L. I. The Problem of the Inheritance of Acquired Characters . New Delhi, India, 1982. A translation by F. B. Churchill of an account of the rise and fall of Lamarckian ideas in the Soviet Union, written in 1971, soon after Lysenko was denounced. Difficult to find, even in good libraries. Bowler, P. J. The Eclipse of Darwinism . Baltimore, 1983. An...

Heterozygote Advantage

Heterozygote Advantage   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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2005
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Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
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4,349 words
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...heterozygotes have a mild anemia, but normally not a pathological condition. The S form of β haemoglobin is rare or absent in most parts of the world, but it reaches moderate allelic frequencies, up to 0.16, in western and central Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern India. The geographic areas in which S reaches moderate frequencies all have chronically high incidence of the form of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum ( Allison , 1964 ). A series of field and laboratory studies have convincingly demonstrated that, in the presence of...

Race

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Encyclopedia of Evolution

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...Congoids, or dark-skinned people of the rest of sub-Saharan Africa; the Caucasoids, or people from northern Europe to North Africa, including most of the Indian subcontinent; the Mongoloids, or people of eastern Asia and the New World; and the Australoids, or people from central India, much of the Pacific Rim, and all of Australia. Other authors have come up with other classifications. The model of a branching history of discrete races appears occasionally in the literature of human genetics in which estimates are given of separation times of races. The...

Disease

Disease   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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2005
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Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
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9,315 words
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...communication: the linking of China, India, and the Mediterranean world in the early Christian era, the spread of the Mongol empire in the thirteenth century, and the beginning of European seaborne exploration in the fifteenth century. McNeill ( 1976 ) argues that the major civilized regions of the Old World had evolved their own distinct infectious disease regimes by around 500 bce . By that point, Babylonian, Egyptian, and Chinese written records show that epidemic disease was well established. The linking of China, India, and the Mediterranean resulted from...

Genetic Load

Genetic Load   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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2005
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Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
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3,825 words
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...0.9 0.95 1 Substitutional load is often discussed in terms of a closely related concept called the cost of natural selection. The British biologist J. B. S. Haldane introduced the idea of a cost of selection in a paper in 1957 (by which time Haldane was taking up residence in India), and it has subsequently been incorporated in the general concept of genetic load. [ See Haldane, John Burdon Sanderson ]. Haldane formally defined the cost of natural selection as the ratio of chance that an individual dies because of selection / chance that an individual...

Linkage

Linkage   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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2005
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Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
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3,402 words
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... glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase ( G6PD ) locus provides another example of selection generating linkage disequilibrium. Mutations that reduce the activity of this enzyme are associated with increased resistance to malaria. In Africa, southern Europe, the Middle East, and India, resistance mutations are strongly associated with specific alleles at neutral flanking loci. Different resistance mutations in G6PD from sub-Saharan Africa and the Mediterranean are associated with different haplotype groups, and there are fewer haplotypes associated with the...

Mammals

Mammals   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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2005
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Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
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5,871 words
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...may have been feeding on fruits and seeds. One hundred million years ago the marsupials were already a separate lineage from the Placentalia. This was also a time when the breakup of the world continent of Pangaea was in full development. Gondwanaland (Africa, Madagascar, India, South America, Antarctica, and Australia) was separating into East Gondwanaland (Africa) and West Gondwanaland (South America, Australia and Antarctica). This breakdown of connections may have had an early influence on the faunal compositions of the continents, but the major...

Mass Extinctions

Mass Extinctions   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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2005
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Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
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4,900 words
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5

...be implicated in a number of greater and lesser mass extinction events, though by no means all. Thus, if there is no causal correlation, it is a remarkable coincidence that two of the greatest series of eruptions of continental flood basalts, the Siberian Traps and Decan Traps of India, coincide in time respectively with the end-Permian and end-Cretaceous events. The most obvious long-term environmental change produced by such volcanism would be global warming induced by the increased amount of CO 2 in the atmosphere. Climatic cooling has also been invoked as a...

Art

Art   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
4,903 words
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2

...spotted the resemblance and carried it to the site, where it was deposited some three million years ago. The ability to perceive suggestive forms is merely a precondition for the use of art. Three ostrich eggshell “beads” from an Acheulean site in Libya and five from two sites in India are not in themselves evidence of a cultural system of ornamentation, even if they were artificially perforated. D'Errico and Nowell ( 2000 ) accept evidence for personal ornaments and decorated artifacts from Châtelperronian sites in western Europe, such as Roc de Combe and...

Human Sociobiology and Behavior

Human Sociobiology and Behavior   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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...higher reproductive success than their brothers. She documented this with data from British India. This difference in reproductive success between sons and daughters is greatest when women tend to marry men of higher social status than their natal families, and men at the top of the hierarchy are polygynous. Dickemann used the Trivers–Willard hypothesis to predict higher rates of female infanticide among higher castes in the early colonial period of British India, and she got confirming results from census data collected by the colonial government. It is...

Mate Choice

Mate Choice   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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...Mating ; Leks ; Sexual Dimorphism ; Sperm Competition . Mate Choice In Peafowl Marion Petrie has spent many years studying peafowl (strictly speaking, only males are called peacocks and females are peahens) that range freely in a large park in England. As in their native India, males gather in groups to display to females with their magnificent tails, but they do not provide females with any resources. Petrie first showed that males with more elaborate trains had higher mating success than other males, which suggests that the trait evolved because of...

Primates

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Encyclopedia of Evolution

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...the lorises are characterized by reduced ears, arms and legs of equal length, and a reduced tail. There are two genera of lorises in Africa and two in Asia. The Asian lorises are the slow loris ( Nycticebus ) from Southeast Asia, and the slender loris ( Loris ) from southern India and Sri Lanka. The two African genera are the golden potto ( Arctocebus ) and the potto ( Perodicticus ). The second major division of primates, and the one that includes humans, is the haplorhines. Haplorhines are characterized by several derived features that reflect a...

Hominid Evolution

Hominid Evolution   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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2005
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Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
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14,569 words
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...erect,” and considered it the “missing link” between apes and humans. Today we include the Trinil fossils in the widespread species Homo erectus . Fossils of the species have been collected from South Africa, Tanzania, Kenya, Ethiopia, Algeria, Morocco, Italy, Germany, Georgia, India, China, and Indonesia. The oldest specimens come from Africa, the Caucasus, and Java and are dated at about 1.8 million years. These very early dates outside of Africa indicate that H. erectus dispersed across the Old World almost instantaneously, as soon as the species arose in...

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