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India

Subject: History

The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growth India's vast territory can be divided into three main regions ...

India

India   Reference library

Judith Brown

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
5,182 words
Illustration(s):
3

...was that India, compared with its contribution in the earlier years of the century, had declined in economic value to the UK; and Britain was for the first time India's debtor rather than creditor as a result of the war effort and India's vast sterling balances. In such a situation there could be no reassertion of empire. The end of the Raj in India was also highly significant for the future of Britain's relations with its other colonies and its attempts to construct patterns of world-wide defence. The protection of India and routes to India had been at...

India

India   Quick reference

World Maps

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...India Physical map Political map Delhi Central Delhi Central Delhi Kolkata Mumbai Central Mumbai...

India

India   Quick reference

World Flags

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

... The Indian flag was adopted shortly after the country gained independence from Britain in 1947. The saffron (orange) represents India's Hindu people, the green stands for the Muslims, and the white symbolizes the peace between them. The central wheel is a Gandhian symbol of...

India

India   Quick reference

A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,835 words
Illustration(s):
2

...has also been a boom in consumer electronics and computers. The latter can take advantage of India’s large pool of computer programmers, especially in Bangalore, India’s ‘cybercity’. India’s English-speaking graduates also staff many call centres for companies in the USA and Europe and perform many other ‘outsourced’ functions. Software and computer services now account for around one-quarter of exports. These developments have been transforming the face of India’s cities. TV programming has now been opened up to a multitude of satellite channels. Life in...

India

India   Quick reference

The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...India ( Bhārat ) , ( Hindustan ) The Republic of India (Hindi: Bhārat Gaņarājya) since 1950 after independence was achieved in 1947 when the Federal Union of India (and Dominion of India) was created. Although the English East India Company had established its first trading post on the west coast of India in 1608 , the first step in the creation of a British Empire in India was only taken as a result of the victory of Robert Clive ( 1725–74 ) at the Battle of Plassey in 1757 . At this time the Company desired no territory other than Bengal; it...

India

India   Reference library

A. Mathias Mundadan

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,525 words

...reached India in the first century as a result of the preachings of St Thomas the Apostle. The fruits of the Medieval Western Latin Mission, which culminated in the establishment of a bishopric at Kollam (Quilon) in 1329 , did not survive. It is the Portuguese who laid the foundation for the present Latin Christianity * in India in the sixteenth century. Other missionaries built on this foundation. The Protestant form of Christianity had its debut in India with the Lutheran establishment at Tranquebar ( 1706 ). The ancient Christians of India, the St...

India

India (2010)   Reference library

Mahesh RANGARAJAN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
3,574 words

... Activism, Judicial ; Agriculture (South and East Asia) ; Chennai, India ; Delhi, India ; Education, Environmental (India) ; Five-Year Plans ; Gandhism ; Ganges River ; The Himalaya ; Indigenous Peoples ; Mumbai, India ; Parks and Preserves ; Reforestation and Afforestation (Southeast Asia) ; Religions ; Traditional Knowledge (India) ; Water Use and Rights (India) ; White Revolution of India This article was adapted by the editors from Mahesh Rangarajan’s article “India” in Shepard Krech III, J. R. McNeill, and Carolyn Merchant (Eds.), ...

India

India   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
7,507 words
Illustration(s):
3

...of “Indian Muslim.” At the same time, the Muslims of independent India have neither participated in “Islamist” or militant movements, nor have they organized any national-level Muslim political party. They have supported a range of political parties and participated in the regularly held elections that make the Republic of India the world's largest democracy. Muslims in India. Indian Muslims offer a Friday prayer at Delhi's Jama Masjid (Mosque). Photograph by Manish Swarup / AP Images India in the Eighteenth Century. The eighteenth century is increasingly...

India

India   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
349 words

... The world’s second most populous country and seventh-largest by land area. Located in mainland South Asia , historically it was home to the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. Four of the world's major religions—Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism—also originated there. From the early 18th century, large parts of India came under the control of one of the world’s largest trading companies of the era, the British East India Company. Later, it was administered directly by Britain. This period saw the transfer en masse of British and other European...

India

India   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,263 words

...to be very effective at alleviating India's unconscionable poverty and its human costs; nor are they likely to do away with all the violence that the contest over India's national identity has generated in the last decade. Indian democracy will remain a paradoxical combination of unyielding self assertion and human deprivation. Foreign Policy. India's foreign policy was persistently governed by a belief in alignments, although during the Cold War it was somewhat closer to the Soviet Union. Since Independence, India's relations with its neighbors, Pakistan...

India

India   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
11,312 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Order: State, Society and Ideology in Early Medieval India . New Delhi, 1999. Kulke, Hermann . The State in India, 1000–1700 . Delhi, 1995. Liu Xinru . Ancient India and Ancient China: Trade and Religious Exchanges, AD 1–600 . Delhi, 1994. Ludden, David . An Agrarian History of South Asia. In The New Cambridge History of India , vol. 4. Cambridge, 1999. McCrindle, John Watson . The Commerce and Navigation of the Erythraean Sea . Amsterdam, 1973. Randhawa, M. S. A History of Agriculture in India . 4 vols. Delhi, 1986. Ray, Himanshu P. The Winds of...

India

India   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
18,655 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in 1949 , with Pakistan incorporating one third of Kashmir and India two thirds. India's new territory became the states of Jammu and Kashmir with internal autonomy. In 1952–1954 , France peacefully yielded to India the five colonies of former French India, Pondicherry, Karikal, Mahe, Yanaon, and Chandernagor. Ethnic violence accompanied several Sikh uprisings in the 1980s—the former British protectorate of Sikkim had become a protectorate of India in 1950 and was absorbed into India in 1974 . Violence also broke out in the Pungab in 1988 and Assam in ...

India

India   Reference library

Christopher Candland

The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,605 words

... The word “India” is a European invention derived from the river Indus, which runs through what is now Pakistan. Indians refer to India as “Bharat.” India is the birthplace of three major religions—Hinduism, Buddhism, and Sikhism—and is home to more than 150 million Muslims. India borders Pakistan and the Arabian Sea to the west; Bhutan, China, Nepal, and the Himalayan mountain range to the north; Bangladesh, Myanmar, and the Bay of Bengal to the east; and the Indian Ocean to the south. The Maldives and Sri Lanka lie to the south in the Indian Ocean. India...

India

India   Reference library

Christopher Candland

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,609 words

... The word “India” is a European invention derived from the river Indus, which runs through what is now Pakistan. Indians refer to India as “Bharat.” India is the birthplace of three major religions—Hinduism, Buddhism, and Sikhism—and is home to more than 150 million Muslims. India borders Pakistan and the Arabian Sea to the west; Bhutan, China, Nepal, and the Himalayan mountain range to the north; Bangladesh, Myanmar, and the Bay of Bengal to the east; and the Indian Ocean to the south. The Maldives and Sri Lanka lie to the south in the Indian Ocean. India...

India

India   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
4,457 words

...worship is common in the whole of India. An ancient institution in India called “sacred groves,” perhaps of pre-Vedic origin, kept patches of original forest uncut. The Buddha was probably born in such a sacred grove. Many villages in India have sacred groves in which plants and animals receive absolute protection. But already in the 1880s, the inspector general of the forests in British India lamented the loss of sacred groves and this destruction has continued unabated since. However, there is also a tradition in India of defending trees and forests from...

India

India   Reference library

Barbara D. Metcalf

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,787 words

...Gandhi opposed Partition to the end. Many hoped that Partition would end communal violence. The Republic of India. In the horrific course of the Partition of British India, as many as 12 to 18 million people may have migrated; perhaps a million others died. The rulers of the various princely states, abandoned by Britain, were forced to make a choice of India or Pakistan. The Hindu rulers of Kashmir, adjoining both India and Pakistan, had notoriously discriminated against their Muslim majority population. While the maharaja vacillated, Pakistani...

India

India   Reference library

Asiya Alam

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,708 words

...biased personal laws—is perpetuating their structured disempowerment (Hasan and Menon, pp. 232–244). The story of Muslim women's activism in India is a checkered trajectory characterized by the dynamism of upper and middle class groups calling for “ sharif ” social reform during the phase of colonialism, followed by the painful disarray of agendas and ideologies brought upon by the division of the subcontinent into India and Pakistan. In recent decades, feminist struggles of Muslim women have targeted two enemies: the male patriarchal elite within the community...

Digital India Initiative

Digital India Initiative   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Business and Management in India

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
61 words

...Digital India Initiative A 2015 government initiative designed to improve the availability of public services by upgrading online infrastructure and internet connectivity. There is a particular focus on providing services to rural areas and on increasing digital literacy. The initiative enjoys the support of a number of leading companies including Microsoft, Google, Apple, and Facebook. http://www.digitalindia.gov.in/ The Digital India Initiative...

All-India Services

All-India Services   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Politics and International Relations in India

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
59 words

...India Services A term encapsulating India’s civil services. It comprises the Indian Administrative Service (which handles government affairs and policy), the Indian Forest Service (which manages India’s forests), and the Indian Police Service (which looks after internal security, law and order, and public safety). It was set up by Vallabhbhai Patel . See also Union Public Service Commission...

Partition of India

Partition of India (1947)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Politics and International Relations in India

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
136 words

...of India ( 1947 ) The splitting of British India into modern-day India and modern-day Pakistan based on Hindu or Muslim majorities. Occurring after the success of the independence movement , it was premised upon the divisive Mountbatten Plan , and was accompanied by widespread Hindu–Muslim communal violence that led to over a million deaths, as an estimated 10–15 million people changed lands. On this basis, it is one of the worst human catastrophes of the twentieth century. It was the precursor to ongoing conflict between India and Pakistan...

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