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India

Subject: History

The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growth India's vast territory can be divided into three main regions ...

NATO phonetic alphabet

NATO phonetic alphabet n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...phonetic alphabet n . The standard list of words used to identify letters of the alphabet unambiguously in police and maritime communications, air traffic control, and military contexts: Alpha, Bravo, Charlie, Delta, Echo, Foxtrot, Golf, Hotel, India, Juliet, Kilo, Lima, Mike, November, Oscar, Papa, Quebec, Romeo, Sierra, Tango, Uniform, Victor, Whiskey, X-ray, Yankee, Zulu. [Named after NATO, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, which standardized...

dhat

dhat n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... n. A culture-bound syndrome found in India, where there is another similar syndrome called jiryan , and Sri Lanka, where a syndrome resembling dhat is called sukra prameha , characterized by severe anxiety , together with hypochondria focused on concerns about weakness and exhaustion, attributed to excessive discharge of semen by both men and women (also believed to secrete semen), and whitish discolouration of urine interpreted as semen loss. Also written dhatu . Compare shen-k’uei . [From Hindi dhatura a plant with strongly narcotic...

intrusion

intrusion n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...sound, especially in allegro speech , between two syllables, neither of which contains the sound when the syllable is spoken in isolation, or the letter representing it in that position, such as the /r/ often heard in such phrases as the idea ( r ) of it, law ( r ) and order, India ( r ) and Pakistan, visa ( r ) application , and the Shah ( r ) of Iran . Compare linking r . intrusive adj...

koro

koro n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...A less common female variant of the syndrome, focused on fear of the nipples or vulva retracting, is also recognized. Also called shook yong, shuk yang, suk yeong , or suo yang in Chinese-speaking areas, rok-joo in Thailand, and jinjinia bemar or jinjin in north-eastern India. [From Malay koro to...

animism

animism n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...desires and intentions to plants, inanimate objects, or natural phenomena. The term was first used in this sense by the British social anthropologist Sir Edward Burnett Tylor ( 1832–1917 ) in his book Primitive Culture ( 1871 ) to describe the beliefs of the ‘ruder tribes’ of India, who believed, for example, that the sun shines in order to provide warmth. Although the French anthropologist Lucien Lévy-Bruhl ( 1857–1939 ) criticized such usage in 1910 in his book Les Fonctions Mentales dans les Sociétés Inférieures (translated into English under the...

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in Southern Africa

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in Southern Africa   Reference library

Clinton Gahwiler, Lee Hill, and Valérie Grand’Maison

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
11,560 words
Illustration(s):
1

...a negative addiction to running. South African Journal of Sports Medicine , 4 (4), 6–11. Arksey, H. , & O’Malley, L. (2005). Scoping studies: Towards a methodological framework. International Journal of Social Research Methodology , 8 (1), 19–32. Arouff, J. P. (2015). India in pacts to develop infrastructure in Mauritius , Seychelles. . Bale, S. (1993). Obituary: Danie Craven . The Independent (London) . . Basson, C. J. (1997). Psychological preparation for a low intensity marathon squash event. South African Journal of Sports Medicine , 4...

Leadership Skills in Sport

Leadership Skills in Sport   Reference library

W. James Weese and P. Chelladurai

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...things they would not normally have done. However, their styles were diametrically different. Patton’s authoritarian, direct style of leadership, while effective in World War II, would have been a dismal failure if mimicked by Mahatma Gandhi in his movement against the British in India ( Howell, Dorfman, & Kerr, 1986 ). The same may be said for Vince Lombardi. His autocratic leadership style may not be effective in dealing with the modern-day athlete on a large, long-term contract worth 10 times that of his coach. The dictatorial leadership style would...

Mill, James

Mill, James (1773–1836)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
120 words

...). British writer and political economist , born near Forfar, Scotland, and educated for the ministry at Edinburgh. In 1802 he moved to London to start a literary career, editing and writing for various periodicals. He also worked for the East India Company after writing a History of British India ( 1818 ). Having written Elements of Political Economy ( 1821–2 ) he produced Analysis of the Phenomena of the Human Mind in 1829 and A Fragment on Mackintosh ( 1835 ). He was closely associated with Jeremy Bentham and was one of the founders of...

Burton, Richard Francis

Burton, Richard Francis (1821–90)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
561 words

...horse races. At 21 Burton joined the army of the East India Company and was posted to the Sindh, in north-western India (now Pakistan), where he lived with Muslims and learned several Eastern languages and dialects, including Iranian, Hindustani, and Arabic. During this time, Burton became proficient also in Marathi, Sindhi, Punjabi, Telugu, Pashto, and Multani. In his travels in Asia, Africa, and South America, he learned 25 languages, with dialects that brought the number to 40. After seven years in India working under the direction of the renowned Sir...

Zen

Zen   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
782 words

...when in this state. 1. History 2. What is Zen? 3. Zen tradition and practice 4. Zen and ordinary everyday life 1. History Buddhism is founded on the teachings of the Buddha, who, in India c. 500 bc , realized his true nature and attained liberation from illusion. Zen Buddhism emerged as a separate branch where Bodhidharma, the first Zen patriarch, left India in ad 520 and took his teaching to China, where it took root and flourished. In ad 1100 . Zen spread to Japan, where it had its greatest flowering and deeply influenced many aspects of...

Indian ideas of the mind

Indian ideas of the mind   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,812 words

...used in India: Know the self as the chariot-owner (i.e. he who is carried, inactively, by it), the body as the chariot. Know awareness ( buddhi ) as the driver, the mind ( manas ) as the reins. The senses, they say, are the horses, sense-objects the path they range over. The self joined to mind and senses, wise men say, is the experiencer. He who is without understanding, whose mind is ever unharnessed, his senses are out of control, as bad horses are for a charioteer. ( Kaṭha Upaniṣad , i. 3–5) In the Bhagavad Gītā ( c. 3rd century bc ), India's most...

Islamic philosophy

Islamic philosophy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
868 words

...philosophy . A traditional occidental theme is that the thinkers of Islam were mere synthesizers of Greek and other traditions (such as those of India and Persia) and made no original contribution to human thought. This simplistic view originates with the assumption that such work as that of Avicenna was the totality of Islam's philosophy: which in turn is understandable when it is realized what a profound effect Avicenna had upon the Schoolmen. The importance of Avicenna's thought for the West cannot be overestimated. Both in its negative aspect, such...

psychosurgery

psychosurgery   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
995 words

...high. Furthermore he has argued that psychosurgery could be used as a means for controlling antisocial behaviour and the activities of political dissidents. While there may be too few skilled in stereotactic surgery to permit its extensive use for political and social reasons, in India and Japan operations on the amygdaloid nucleus of the brain have been performed to control ‘hyperactivity’ in children. Although there is no doubt that outbursts of unbridled violence can be caused by diseases of the limbic brain, there is very little evidence that psychosurgery...

bilingualism

bilingualism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,447 words

...experiencing substantial immigration or made up of disparate groups. It is estimated that peoples from more than 90 different language communities have emigrated to Israel since the 1930s. It is encountered in large countries also. In the Soviet Union, as in Iran, China, and India— countries comprising people of many different ethnic, linguistic, and religious backgrounds—a single ‘national’ language is inculcated as a unifying device, while the separate groups use their own languages for local communication. Even in a country where the languages share a...

Chinese ideas of the mind

Chinese ideas of the mind   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,144 words

...However, Wang Yangming claims that principle is the regularity of material force and that material force is the operation of principle. If we follow the latter view, then there is the danger that everything will be chaotic. (de Bary and Bloom 1979 ) Buddhism, spreading from India to China in the 2nd century ad onward, held a decidedly idealist position in declaring the visible universe an illusion: the world was nothing but mind, and the individual's mind was part of the universal mind. The Chinese Buddhists substituted xing ([subjective] nature) for ...

Japanese concepts of the mind: traditional views

Japanese concepts of the mind: traditional views   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
2,080 words

...durable that, with the provision of a measure of freedom of belief after the Meiji Restoration of 1868 (Muraoka 1964 ), many ‘underground’ Christians emerged into the open, especially in the Nagasaki area. Behind the Japanese tradition, therefore, lies China, and behind that India, with a distinct Christian influence first felt in the 17th century and renewed in the 19th. It is not uncommon for a Japanese to profess several faiths at once. And even a Japanese who declares himself a total unbeliever—as a great many do today—may merely be displaying...

hypnosis

hypnosis   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,223 words

...in England was promoted by John Elliotson ( 1791–1852 ), a professor of medicine in the University of London, but the failure of ‘magnetism’ once more to stand up to experimental investigation led eventually to his resignation from his post at University College Hospital. In India, James Esdaile ( 1808–59 ) used mesmeric procedures as a form of anaesthesia to carry out surgical operations. Whilst many of these ‘mesmerizers’ recognized the importance of psychological processes it was with James Braid ( 1795–1860 ), a Scottish doctor working in England,...

Suicide in Later Life

Suicide in Later Life   Reference library

Kim Van Orden, Caroline Silva, and Yeates Conwell

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology and Aging

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology
Length:
16,704 words
Illustration(s):
5

... 2009 ; Zhang et al., 2002 ), especially in rural areas of China where ingestion of poison is more common ( Li et al., 2009 ). Although death by pesticides is as common among younger and older adults in China, hanging is more common in older adults ( Li et al., 2009 ). In India, elderly females are more likely to drown themselves whereas younger females die by hanging ( Wu, Chen, & Yip, 2012 ). See Wu et al. ( 2012 ) for more information regarding variations in suicide methods in Asia. Of note is the fact that regulatory controls on the import and sale...

Cultural Values and the Nature of Successful Aging

Cultural Values and the Nature of Successful Aging   Reference library

Sandra Torres

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology and Aging

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology
Length:
8,585 words

... Clark, M. , & Anderson, B. (1967). Culture and aging: An anthropological study of older Americans . Springfield, IL: Thomas. Climo, J. J. (1992). The role of anthropology in gerontology: Theory. Journal of Aging Studies , 6 , 41–55. Cohen, L. (1998). No ageing in India: Alzheimer’s, the bad family and other modern things . Berkeley: University of California Press. Cole, T. R. (1984). Aging, meaning and well-being: Musings of a cultural historian. International Journal of Aging and Human Development , 19 , 329–336. Coleman, J. S. (1990). ...

Parent–Child Relations and Their Importance for Older Adults

Parent–Child Relations and Their Importance for Older Adults   Reference library

Kyungmin Kim and Yijung Kim

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology and Aging

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology
Length:
13,885 words

...and housing ( Isengard & Szydlik, 2012 ). Literature reports mixed findings on the effects of intergenerational coresidence on older adults’ well-being. In Asian countries where intergenerational coresidence is still prevalent among older adults (e.g., Vietnam, China, Korea, and India), living with a grown child (and possibly with grandchildren) was linked to better health and psychological outcomes in later life ( Do & Malhotra, 2012 ; Samanta, Chen, & Vanneman, 2015 ; Silverstein, Cong, & Li, 2006 ; Yamada & Teerawichitchainan, 2015 ). Similarly,...

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