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India

Subject: History

The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growth India's vast territory can be divided into three main regions ...

numeral

numeral   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Weights, Measures, and Units

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Any graphic character having an assigned numeric value. The best-known scheme of numerals throughout the world is the European adaptation of a scheme used in India, originating several millennia ago. Enshrined in the Arab world by the great Al-Kwharazimi in 820 ce then brought to Spain by the Moorish Arabs, it was translated by 1100 into Latin, and so into European culture. The writings of Leonardo Fibonacci of Pisa around 1200 made it popular. Inevitably called Arabic numerals , these characters are more appropriately called at least Indo-Arabic...

ITER

ITER   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Physics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Physics
Length:
65 words

...that will aim to generate electricity from nuclear fusion in a viable large-scale way using a confined plasma in a Tokamak . The largest-ever nuclear fusion experiment, ITER is currently being constructed in the south of France with funding from China, the European Union, India, Japan, Russia, South Korea, and the United...

thorium

thorium   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Physics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Physics
Length:
108 words

...thorium Symbol Th. A grey radioactive metallic element belonging to the actinoids; a.n. 90; r.a.m. 232.038; r.d. 11.5–11.9 (17°C); m.p. 1740–1760°C; b.p. 4780–4800°C. It occurs in monazite sand in Brazil, India, and the USA. The isotopes of thorium have mass numbers from 223 to 234 inclusive; the most stable isotope, thorium–232, has a half-life of 1.39 × 10 10 years. It can be used as a nuclear fuel for breeder reactors as thorium–232 captures slow neutrons to breed uranium–233. Thorium dioxide ( thoria , ThO 2 ) is used on gas mantles and in special...

coal

coal   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Physics (8 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Physics
Length:
294 words

...were formed during the Carboniferous and Permian periods. More recent periods of coal formation occurred during the early Jurassic and Tertiary periods. Coal deposits occur in all the major continents; the leading producers include the USA, China, Ukraine, Poland, South Africa, India, Australia, and Germany. Coal is used as a fuel and in the chemical industry; by-products include coke and coal...

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