## numeral Quick reference

### A Dictionary of Weights, Measures, and Units

...Any graphic character having an assigned numeric value. The best-known scheme of numerals throughout the world is the European adaptation of a scheme used in India, originating several millennia ago. Enshrined in the Arab world by the great Al-Kwharazimi in 820 ce then brought to Spain by the Moorish Arabs, it was translated by 1100 into Latin, and so into European culture. The writings of Leonardo Fibonacci of Pisa around 1200 made it popular. Inevitably called Arabic numerals , these characters are more appropriately called at least Indo-Arabic...

## Basu, Debabrata (1924–2001) Quick reference

### A Dictionary of Statistics (3 ed.)

...Debabrata ( 1924–2001 ; b. Dhaka, Bangladesh ; d. Calcutta, India ) Bangladeshi statistician whose career was divided between India and the USA. Basu was a faculty member at FSU and the Indian Statistical Institute where he obtained his PhD supervised by Rao...

## Unicode Quick reference

### A Dictionary of the Internet (3 ed.)

...Unicode A standard for a set of characters which is intended to support written texts expressed in a large number of languages from Europe, America, Asia, India, and the Pacific...

## Mahalanobis, Prasanta Chandra (1893–1972) Quick reference

### A Dictionary of Statistics (3 ed.)

...Prasanta Chandra ( 1893–1972 ; b. Calcutta, India ; d. Calcutta, India ) Indian statistician who was the founder (in 1931 ) of the Indian Statistical Institute . Mahalanobis studied physics at Calcutta U and Cambridge U. In the library of King's College, Cambridge, Mahalanobis was asked by a fellow student to express his opinion about an article in Biometrika It was this encounter that stimulated his subsequent research in Statistics. Practical problems led to theoretical advances in many areas of Statistics—it was an anthropometric...

## Bahadur, Raghu Raj (1924–1997) Quick reference

### A Dictionary of Statistics (3 ed.)

...Raghu Raj ( 1924–1997 ; b. New Delhi, India ; d. Chicago, IL ) Indian mathematical statistician . A graduate of U Delhi, Bahadur gained his PhD from UNC in 1950 . His career was split between the Indian Statistical Institute and U Chicago. He was the 1974 Wald Lecturer of the IMS . http://www.stat.uchicago.edu/faculty/InMemoriam/bahadur/BahadurCV.pdf Curriculum...

## Wald, Abraham (1902–50) Quick reference

### A Dictionary of Statistics (3 ed.)

...; d. Travancore, India ) Hungarian geometer and statistician . Wald gained his PhD in geometry in 1931 from U Vienna. In 1938 , on the Nazi seizure of Austria, he emigrated to the USA and turned his attention to statistical decision theory , making important advances in the theory of sequential sampling . He held posts at Brown U (supervising Chernoff ) and Columbia U (where Stein was one of his research students). He was President of the IMS in 1948 and its Rietz Lecturer in 1947 . He died in a plane crash in India. The Wald Memorial...

## Ramanujan, Srinivasa (1887–1920) Quick reference

### The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics (5 ed.)

... 1914 . He studied and collaborated with Hardy on the subject of partitions and other topics, mainly in number theory. He was considered a genius for his inexplicable ability in, for example, the handling of series and continued fractions . Because of ill‐health he returned to India a year before he...

## Sen, Pranab Kumar (1937– ) Quick reference

### A Dictionary of Statistics (3 ed.)

...Pranab Kumar ( 1937– ; b. Calcutta, India ) Indian statistician who has spent most of his career in the USA. Sen was educated at Calcutta U (BSc, 1955 ; MSc, 1957 ; PhD, 1962 ). He spent three years on the faculty at Calcutta U before moving to UCB in 1964 . In the following year he moved to UNC, where he began the collaboration with Puri that resulted in the publication of their influential 1971 book entitled Non-parametric Tests in Multivariate Analysis ....

## Gnanadesikan, Ramanathan (1932–2015) Quick reference

### A Dictionary of Statistics (3 ed.)

...Ramanathan ( 1932–2015 ; b. Madras (Chennai), India ; d. Vineyard Haven, MA ) Indian mathematical statistician , specializing in the analysis of multivariate data , whose career was in the USA. A graduate of U Madras, Gnanadesikan obtained his PhD at UNC in 1957 . In 1959 he joined AT&T Labs working alongside Wilk and Mallows . In 1991 he joined the faculty at Rutgers U. He was President of the IASC in 1981 and President of the IMS in 1989 ....

## Haldane, John Burdon Sanderson (1892–1964) Quick reference

### A Dictionary of Statistics (3 ed.)

...John Burdon Sanderson ( 1892–1964 ; b. Oxford, England ; d. Bhubaneswar, India ) Pioneering English geneticist who applied Statistics to human genetics . His career included posts at UCL, U Cambridge and U Oxford. His A Mathematical Theory of Natural and Artificial Selection was published in 10 parts between 1924 and 1934 . He was elected FRS in 1932 and was awarded the Society’s Darwin Medal in 1952 . http://www.jic.ac.uk/centenary/timeline/info/JBSHaldane.htm Biography, photograph, and...

## nonsense correlation Quick reference

### A Dictionary of Statistics (3 ed.)

...being causally related to one another. The usual explanation is that they are both related to a third variable, Z . Often the third variable is time. For example, if we compare the price of a detached house in Edinburgh in 1920 , 1930 ,…with the size of the population of India at those dates, a ‘significant’ positive correlation will be found, since both variables have increased markedly with time. The first comprehensive study of nonsense correlation was undertaken in 1926 by Yule , who considered the apparent connection between the fall in Church...

## Varadhan, Sathamangalam Ranga Srinivasa ‘Raghu’ (1940– ) Quick reference

### A Dictionary of Statistics (3 ed.)

...Sathamangalam Ranga Srinivasa ‘Raghu’ ( 1940– ; b. Madras (Chennai), India ) Indian probabilist whose career has been in the USA. Varadhan obtained his BSc (in 1959 with record marks) and MSc ( 1960 ) from Madras U. His PhD supervisor at the Indian Statistical Institute was Rao . In 1963 Varadhan joined the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences in New York, where he has remained. He is a member of the AAAS ( 1988 ), the NAS ( 1995 ) and was elected FRS in 1998 . He was President of the IMS in 2003 , its Rietz Lecturer in 1987 ...

## number systems Quick reference

### The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Mathematics (5 ed.)

...a larger its value is subtracted. For example, IX, XXVI and CXLIV represent 9, 26 and 144. See appendix 16 . The Hindu–Arabic number system, in which numbers are generally written today, uses the Arabic numerals and a positional notation with base 10. It originated in India, where records of its use go back to the 6th century. It was introduced to Europe in the 12th century, promoted by Fibonacci and...

## de Morgan, Augustus (1806–71) Quick reference

### A Dictionary of Statistics (3 ed.)

...Morgan, Augustus ( 1806–71 ; b. Madura, India ; d. London, England ) English mathematician . De Morgan established the logical footing of mathematical induction, and his interest in algebra led to the formulation of the de Morgan Laws ( see Boolean algebra ). He did not excel at school, having lost the sight of an eye shortly after birth, but nevertheless went to Cambridge U when aged sixteen. He refused to take the theological test required for an MA and, as a result, was not eligible for a fellowship. In 1828 , after studying law at Lincoln's Inn...

## Rao, Calyampudi Radhakrishna (1920– ) Quick reference

### A Dictionary of Statistics (3 ed.)

...Calyampudi Radhakrishna ( 1920– ; b. Huvina Hadagali, India ) Indian statistician known for his fundamental insights into statistical inference . After studying mathematics at Andhra U and statistics at Calcutta U, in 1944 Rao joined the Indian Statistical Institute (ISI) (working under Mahalanobis ), where he worked on the Cramér–Rao inequality ( see Fisher information ), which he allegedly proved overnight in response to a student inquiry, and on what is now known as the Rao–Blackwell theorem. Mahalanobis sent Rao to Cambridge U to...

## Fisher, Sir Ronald Aylmer (1890–1962) Quick reference

### A Dictionary of Statistics (3 ed.)

... the first edition of his Statistical Methods for Research Workers appeared. The extent of the influence of this work can be gauged from the fact that there was a new edition about every three years until 1958 , and a posthumous fourteenth edition in 1970 . At a conference in India he said ‘To call in the statistician after the experiment is done may be no more than asking him to perform a postmortem examination: he may be able to say what the experiment died of’. In 1933 he became Professor of Eugenics at UCL and in 1943 Professor of Genetics at...

## country code Quick reference

### A Dictionary of the Internet (3 ed.)

... South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands GT Guatemala GU Guam GW Guinea-Bissau GY Guyana HK Hong Kong HM Heard and McDonald Islands HN Honduras HR Croatia (Hrvatska) HT Haiti HU Hungary ID Indonesia IE Ireland IL Israel IN India IO British Indian Ocean Territory IQ Iraq IR Iran IS Iceland IT Italy JM Jamaica JO Jordan JP Japan KE Kenya KG Kyrgyzstan KH Cambodia KI Kiribati KM Comoros KN Saint Kitts and Nevis KP Korea (North) KR Korea (South)...