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India

Subject: History

The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growth India's vast territory can be divided into three main regions ...

Hooker, Sir Joseph Dalton

Hooker, Sir Joseph Dalton (1817–1911)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...by Sir James Ross ( 1800–62 ). On his return, in 1843 , Hooker published Flora Antarctica ( 1844–7 ), Flora Novae Zelandiae ( 1853–5 ), and Flora Tasmanica ( 1855–60 ). He explored the northern frontiers of India ( 1847–51 ), and published the Flora of British India ( 1855–97 ). The large number of rhododendrons he brought from India provided raw materials for many hybrids, which became popular ornamentals, transforming many British gardens. He prepared the fifth and sixth editions of Bentham ’s Handbook of the British Flora , which then became...

Indian Ocean

Indian Ocean   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Ocean One of the world’s major oceans, lying between Africa, India, and Australia. It has a surface area of 77 million km 2 and an average depth of 3872 m. The ocean receives a great deal of sediment from three of the world’s major rivers (the Ganges, the Indus, and the...

Indo-Malesian rain forest

Indo-Malesian rain forest   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2015

...rain forest The rain forest found in western India and Sri Lanka, parts of continental south-east Asia, the Malay Peninsula, and the Malay archipelago, with outliers in Queensland, Australia. It is differentiated from the other rain forests by its floristic composition. Large areas of the Indo-Malesian rain forest have been cleared. See African rain forest ; American rain forest...

Oriental faunal region

Oriental faunal region   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2015

...faunal region The area that encompasses India and Asia south of the Himalayan–Tibetan mountain barrier, and the Australasian archipelago, excluding New Guinea and the Sulawesi. There are marked similarities with the Ethiopian faunal region (e.g. both have elephants and rhinoceroses) but there are endemic ( see endemism ) groups (e.g. pandas and...

arroyo

arroyo   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2015

...A gully found along valley floors in an arid or semi-arid region and possessing steep or vertical walls cut in fine-grained cohesive sediments. The floor is flat and usually sandy. Arroyos are found especially in the south-western United States, parts of India, South Africa, and around the...

Gondwana

Gondwana   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2015

...A former supercontinent of the southern hemisphere from which South America, Africa, India, Australasia, and Antarctica are derived. Their earlier connection explains why related groups of plants and animals are found in more than one of the now widely separated southern land masses; examples include the conifer Araucaria (monkey puzzle, Chile pine, hoop pine, etc.) common to South America and Australia. Throughout Gondwana there existed floristic assemblages represented by a few species of fossil plants that are thought to have grown in a cold...

dry season

dry season   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2015

...season A period each year during which there is little precipitation. In tropical climates (e.g. over much of India) the dry period is often in the winter season. In places in very low latitudes two dry seasons may occur each year, between the northward and southward passage of the equatorial rains. In subtropical, Mediterranean, and west-coast climates, the dry season is in the...

bunt

bunt   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2015

... spores which have a characteristic fishy smell; the spores are released when the wheat crop is harvested. Dwarf bunt is a similar disease caused by T. contraversa ( T. brevifaciens ). Karnal bunt is caused by Neovossia indica ( Tilletia indica ); it occurs in northern India, Afghanistan, Iraq, and...

Laurasia

Laurasia   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2015

...the line of the northern Atlantic Ocean and the Tethys sea . Laurasia included what was to become North America, Greenland, Europe, Asia, and Malesia east to Sulawesi, while the large, southern continental mass (called Gondwana ) was later to divide into South America, Africa, India, Australasia, Malesia east of Sulawesi, and Antarctica. Fossil evidence indicates that the Laurasian floral assemblage included many species of tropical plants that were incorporated into sediments to form the extensive coal measures that are mined throughout Europe and the...

Glossopteris flora

Glossopteris flora   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

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2015

... Glossopteris , which gives its name to the flora, is characterized by a leaf with a fairly well defined midrib and a reticulate (net-like) venation. G. indica is the last species referred to the genus and to the family Glossopteridales. It is known from the Triassic of India...

Suess, Eduard

Suess, Eduard (1831–1914)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2015

...Eduard ( 1831–1914 ) An Austrian geologist who was the first to propose the existence of a former supercontinent that he called Gondwanaland (now called Gondwana ), and the Tethys Ocean . He also discovered the Glossopteris flora in South America, Africa, and India. He summarized his ideas in his book Das Antlitz der Erde ( The Face of the Earth ), published between 1885 and 1901 . In that book he coined the term biosphere , an idea later developed by V. I. Vernadsky . Suess was born in London, the son of a merchant, was professor of...

Malthus, Thomas Robert

Malthus, Thomas Robert (1766–1834)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2015

...Thomas Robert ( 1766–1834 ) An English mathematician and economist , who took holy orders in 1788 and was appointed in 1805 to the first professorship of political economy in Britain, at Haileybury College, founded by the East India Company, a position he occupied until his death. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society and a member of the French Institute and Berlin Royal Academy. He is best remembered for An Essay on the Principle of Population, as it affects the future improvement of society , written to refute the ideas on social and...

ice ages

ice ages   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

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2015

...There is good evidence for a glaciation at the end of the Ordovician in North Africa, but glacial deposits described from elsewhere at this period are problematical, so the extent of the glaciation is not known. The Permo-Carboniferous glaciation of South America, South Africa, India, and Australia was widespread and is well documented. There is no evidence for further glaciation until the Quaternary . Suggestions have been made for other ice ages during the Palaeozoic but evidence for them is sparse. The Pleistocene ice age is the best...

Plagues and Epidemics

Plagues and Epidemics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Current Version:
2005

...numbers in Asia and Middle East. Later outbreaks of bubonic plague Over a dozen outbreaks in Europe during the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. Outbreaks in China and India at the turn of the twentieth century. " Y. pestis " Major cities such as London and Paris were repeatedly devastated. At least 100,000 deaths in London in 1665 . Millions died more recently in India and China. “Sweating sickness” Five outbreaks between 1485–1551 in England, also spread in the rest of Europe. Headache, high fever, severe sweating Unknown, probably viral. No...

Haldane, John Burdon Sanderson

Haldane, John Burdon Sanderson   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Current Version:
2005

...of selection required to substitute an allele in a population depended on its initial frequency, not on the intensity of selection. This principle was used by the geneticist Motoo Kimura in his initial argument for the neutral theory of molecular evolution. Haldane emigrated to India in 1956 , eventually becoming an Indian citizen. He died there of cancer in Bhubaneshwar in 1964 . Besides his scientific work, Haldane was a prolific science popularizer. In one such work, Daedalus ( 1922 ), he raised the possibility of ectopic birth (outside the body). For...

Linnaeus, Carolus

Linnaeus, Carolus   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Current Version:
2005

...extensive Dutch natural history collections that were some of the most impressive of the day. Part of that time he served as superintendent of the garden to one of the major collectors of Holland, George Clifford ( 1685–1760 ), a wealthy financier and director of the Dutch East India Company. In Clifford's gardens (and private zoo) Linnaeus studied living specimens from southern Europe, Asia, Africa, and the New World. It was a time of great excitement in natural history, as Europeans were encountering thousands of new species of plants and animals, plus many...

Vaccination

Vaccination   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
2,814 words
Illustration(s):
1

...what fraction of the population must be vaccinated to eradicate an infectious disease. For example, why was smallpox eradicated with mass vaccination reaching 80 percent of the population in West and Central Africa, but these same levels of mass vaccination were not sufficient in India and other Asian countries? A single parameter that captures all the different aspects of the host–parasite interaction has proved extremely useful in such discussions. The basic reproductive ratio, or R 0 , it is defined as the number of secondary cases caused by one infectious...

Language

Language   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
6,265 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Diversity and Recent Human Evolution Phylogenetics of language. The idea that languages could be placed in phylogenies (or “family trees,” as they are known in linguistics) stems back to Sir William Jones . He asserted in 1786 that Sanskrit, parent to many of the languages of India, bore such a resemblance to Greek and Latin that they could only have sprung from a common source. That source was the long-disappeared Proto-Indo-European, and the tree connecting it to its many descendants across Europe and Asia was soon sketched. The result influenced both...

Amphibians

Amphibians   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
4,277 words
Illustration(s):
4

...and Nussbaum, 1996; and Wilkinson, 1997. Table 1. Geographical Distribution of the Major Extant Groups of Amphibia Taxon Distribution G ymnophiona Rhinatrematidae Northern South America Ichthyophiidae India, Sri Lanka, and Southeast Asia Uraeotyphlidae South India Scolecomorphidae Africa “Caeciliaidae” Mexico, Central and South America; Africa, Seychelles, India, and Southeast Asia Typhlonectidae South America C audata Hynobiidae Continental Asia to Japan Sirenidae Eastern United States and adjacent Mexico Cryptobranchidae China, Japan, and eastern United...

Human Families and Kin Groups

Human Families and Kin Groups   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...be taken as a second wife by a warrior. In European history, royal marriages were sometimes contracted for political alliances only, without intent of sexual relations. In Catholic doctrine, celibate nuns are considered to be married to the deity. Among the matrilineal Nayar of India, a girl went through a marriage ceremony with a man she might never see again, before beginning her sexual and reproductive life by taking lovers. In the contemporary United States, lobbying for “gay marriage” of same-sex couples, without one partner necessarily taking the social...

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