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India

Subject: History

The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growth India's vast territory can be divided into three main regions ...

science in history

science in history   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...in India and South East Asia . London and New York: Routledge, 2001. Kalam, A. P. J. Abdul , and Arun Tiwari . Wings of Fire: An Autobiography of A. P. J. Abdul Kalam . London: Sangam Books, 1999. Sharma, Dhirendra . India's Nuclear Estate . New Delhi: Lancers Publishers, 1983. Sharma, Dhirendra . “ India's Lopsided Science. ” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 47.4 (1991): 32–36. Sharma, Dhirendra . “ Science, Culture, and Conflict in India. ” Cultural Dynamics , 12.2 (2000): 164–181. Dhirendra Sharma See also Technology in History: India and...

Goodyear, Charles

Goodyear, Charles (1800–1860)   Reference library

Cai Guise-Richardson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...textiles, owned one of the patents rendered invalid by the 1849 reissue. A shifting coalition of manufacturers and investors supporting Goodyear vied with a similar coalition supporting Day in the courts throughout the remainder of Goodyear’s life. In the notorious “Great India Rubber Case,” in 1852 , Daniel Webster spoke for Goodyear. The courts found in Goodyear’s favor in this and most of the more than one hundred related lawsuits. The validity of the patent itself was never directly tested. Goodyear’s coalition gained a patent extension in 1858 on...

Wiener, Norbert

Wiener, Norbert (1894–1964)   Reference library

Thomas J. Bergin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...Society awarded him the Bocher Prize. MIT appointed him “Institute Professor” when he reached retirement age, honoring his cross-disciplinary interests. He also traveled extensively, becoming a visiting professor in Peiping, China ( 1935–1936 ), and lecturing at other times in India, Japan, Norway, Italy, and France. In 1964 , shortly before his death, Wiener was awarded the National Medal of Science by President Lyndon B. Johnson. He wrote two autobiographies: I Am a Mathematician ( 1956 ) and Ex-Prodigy: My Childhood and Youth ( 1979 ). [ See also ...

Cotton Gin

Cotton Gin   Reference library

Neil Dahlstrom

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...States, long-staple cotton was being grown in the Deep South, but climate limited its expansion. Recently introduced short-staple cotton, or green-seed cotton, offered tremendous prospects, but the traditional method of separating seed from fiber, based on a device created in India centuries before called a churka, was ineffective with green-seed cotton. Whitney’s cotton gin marked the beginning of a transition from high-quality, long-staple cotton to lower-quality short-staple cotton that could be produced in staggering quantities. A single machine could...

technology in history

technology in history   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...to India during 1999–2000 . With its world-class IT industry, large pool of scientific talent, and vibrant pharmaceutical sector, India is currently well positioned to emerge as a significant player in the global biotech area as well. India's strength in selected areas of biotechnology includes its capacity in bioprocess engineering, skills in gene manipulation of microbes and animal cells, capacity in downstream processing and isolation methods, and competence in recombinant DNA technology of plants and animals. See also Science in History: India...

Hybrid Seeds

Hybrid Seeds   Reference library

Neil Dahlstrom

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...with a dwarf Japanese strain to produce a hybrid short enough to survive the wind. Borlaug’s dwarf wheat sparked what is now known as the “green revolution,” so dramatically increasing yields in Mexico that over the next several decades new varieties were introduced in Pakistan, India, and other areas of the world. Pakistan’s wheat crop grew from a pre–green revolution total of 4.6 million tons to 8.4 million tons just four years later (“Norman Borlaug—Nobel Lecture”). In 1970 , Borlaug was awarded the Noble Peace Prize for his work. Genetically Modified...

Hutchinson, G. Evelyn

Hutchinson, G. Evelyn (1903–1991)   Reference library

Nancy G. Slack

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...his unusual (and encouraging) teaching methods; many of his more than 50 graduate and postdoctoral students became leading ecologists. Hutchinson was also one of the twentieth-century’s best writers of science. In 1932 he was the lead biologist on the Yale Expedition to North India (now Ladakh). He published an account of his journey and his research on the very high altitude lakes as The Clear Mirror , a literary success. For many years he wrote essays (Marginalia) on a wide variety of scientific topics for the American Scientist . Many were collected into...

Missionaries and Science and Medicine

Missionaries and Science and Medicine   Reference library

John Stenhouse

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...much attempt to evangelize. Ida Scudder ( 1870–1960 ) illustrates the feminizing, professionalizing, institution-building, and ecumenical dynamics transforming mainline missions. Born in India into a second-generation missionary family from the Reformed Church, she studied medicine at Cornell before opening a new hospital for women and children at Vellore in India. There she developed a new surgical technique for repairing vesicovaginal fistulae later known as the “Ida Scudder operation.” The Christian Medical College and Hospital she founded at Vellore...

Atoms For Peace

Atoms For Peace   Reference library

Michael Aaron Dennis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...1955 , the United States had negotiated 24 bilateral agreements with nations seeking nuclear reactors for either research or power; by 1965 the number had increased to 39. Among the countries acquiring nuclear materials and technology within the Atoms for Peace framework were India and Pakistan, both of which used the technology as foundations for their own development of nuclear weapons. Although designed as a program to halt the proliferation of nuclear weapons, nations could easily subvert the programs’ safeguards and monitoring programs. In the early...

Sickle-Cell Disease

Sickle-Cell Disease   Reference library

Todd L. Savitt

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...Disease Sickle-cell disease (SCD) comprises a group of genetically transmitted blood diseases found in the United States primarily in persons of African ancestry and worldwide in persons with roots in west and central Africa, India, eastern Saudi Arabia, and the Mediterranean. In early-twenty-first-century America an estimated 70,000 to 100,000 persons had SCD and approximately 8 percent of the African American population carried the sickle-cell genetic trait. The medical history of SCD in America is intertwined with the country’s racial history. In ...

Atomic Age

Atomic Age   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

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Current Version:
2006

...for limitations on the numbers of nuclear weapons and strengthened long-standing demands for their elimination. Less successful were attempts to limit the number of states with nuclear capability. The dangers of nuclear proliferation were illustrated by recent nuclear programs in India and Pakistan as well as those rumored in Israel and Arab states in the Middle East. While the Cuban missile crisis might have brought the world to the brink of nuclear destruction in 1962 , the breakup of the Soviet Union and the loss of control over the Soviet nuclear arsenal...

politics, social justice, and the environment

politics, social justice, and the environment   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

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Current Version:
2006

...San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1994. An examination of environmental justice movements across the United States. Foreword by Lois Marie Gibbs. Shiva, Vandana . Staying Alive: Women, Ecology and Development . London: Zed Books, 1988. A lens into the EJ movement among women in India and other developing nations. Szasz, Andrew . Ecopopulism: Toxic Waste and the Movement for Environmental Justice . Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1994. Barbara L....

agriculture and technology

agriculture and technology   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

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Current Version:
2006

...for more intensive cultivation methods, their higher yields depended upon agrochemicals, irrigation, and other purchased inputs. Yet their name suggested that they were “high-yield” because of a genetic trait. Systems using HYVs increased grain yields of wheat and rice, as in India. This increase could count as greater efficiency only by measuring a single commodity, while ignoring previous benefits that were now lost. Higher grain yield meant less straw, used locally as animal feed. Many farmers had done intercropping; for example, rows of sorghum and wheat...

gender and globalization

gender and globalization   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

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Current Version:
2006

...as India have a ready pool of female labor available for software work—women who are well educated, English speaking, and technically proficient. It is estimated that in India women constitute over 20 percent of the total IT workforce, which is higher than women's participation in the Indian economy as a whole. Despite the repetitive nature of the work and the lack of job security, Indian women's income, their authority in household matters, and their social mobility have improved as a result. Alongside the export of software jobs to countries such as India,...

Psychopharmaceutical Drugs

Psychopharmaceutical Drugs   Reference library

Cai Guise-Richardson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...decrease in the number of long-term institutionalized patients between 1953 and 1960 . Researchers in programs investigating traditional medicines isolated compounds with antipsychotic properties from the root of Rauwolfia serpentina , a plant used for centuries in India for the treatment of insanity. Frank Berger and Bernard Ludwig synthesized the first anxiolytic, meprobamate, in 1950 . Wallace Laboratories in Milltown, New Jersey, launched the drug as Miltown in 1955 as a “minor tranquilizer.” Psychiatric institutions used Miltown, but...

biotechnology

biotechnology   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

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Current Version:
2006

...has not become especially controversial in China or much of the rest of Asia, where population pressures and the desire to adopt progressive Western science dictate that any promised benefit in terms of productivity is likely to be embraced, but it has become controversial in India. India has an emerging scientific sector and a biotechnology industry of its own; of course, it also has an enormous population of people to feed, many of whom are engaged in small-scale or subsistence agriculture. On the one hand, like the earlier “Green Revolution” involving the...

automobile, the

automobile, the   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

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Current Version:
2006

...of air pollution, and fuel economy standards have only slightly diminished the voracious consumption of petroleum products. There are approximately 550 million cars and light trucks on the world's roads today, a number that will increase substantially as the people of China, India, and other developing countries acquire more and more private automobiles. Addressing the problems engendered by the automobile while enjoying its many benefits will be one of the key technological challenges of the twenty-first century. Bibliography Berger, Michael . The Devil...

education and science

education and science   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science, Social sciences
Length:
3,622 words
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...or self-image. These authors provide examples of what an antiracist science education would look like by discussing the nature of race, analyzing grading in science education, and revealing the role of corporate and environmental racism in the thousands of deaths in Bhopal, India, that occurred as a result of a gas leak in 1984 . Incorporation of Science Education Critique into Mainstream Sources The realization that there are gender differences in science achievement has also become a central focus for those who make international comparisons of science...

Nuclear Weapons

Nuclear Weapons   Reference library

Barton C. Hacker and Paul S. Boyer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...nuclear weapons remained a major concern. In the 1990s, fearful that nuclear know-how might fall into dangerous hands, the Clinton administration sought to safeguard nuclear installations in the former Soviet Union. Pakistan’s test of a nuclear weapon in 1998 (thereby matching India, which had exploded a nuclear device as early as 1974 ) stirred fears of a regional nuclear arms race. After the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks, the U.S. government focused on a possible nuclear attack by a rogue state or even a small terrorist band. Under President George...

Asthma and Allergy

Asthma and Allergy   Reference library

Carla C. Keirns

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

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Current Version:
2015

...from Asia and the Americas that ancient European medicine had not known. From the Americas, stimulants such as tobacco and cocaine to open the breathing passages combined with lobelia and ipecac, used to induce vomiting and give the lungs more space to expand. Stramonium from India and teas and acupuncture from China, all used to thin the mucus and ease clearing of the lungs by coughing, rounded out the medicines for asthma available to Americans and Europeans in the late nineteenth century, derived from a worldwide colonial trade in medicinal plants. Beyond...

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