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India

Subject: History

The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growth India's vast territory can be divided into three main regions ...

India and Environmental Change

India and Environmental Change   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

... and Environmental Change On a world map in which a country's size is proportional to its population, India looms large. If on that same map countries with higher rates of population growth are colored pink, and those with lower rates of growth are colored green, India becomes even more prominent than China, inviting Malthusian concerns over environmental pressures. Ten percent of the human race (half of India's population) lives in the Ganges valley, and the world's greatest concentration of human poverty is centered in the downstream states of Uttar...

India and Environmental Change

India and Environmental Change  

On a world map in which a country's size is proportional to its population, India looms large. If on that same map countries with higher rates of population growth are ...
Kyoto Progress

Kyoto Progress   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
928 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Canada, India, Australia, China, South Korea, and Japan. The idea is said to be Australian-inspired but U.S.-led and is intended to bring together the world's largest emitters of greenhouse gases, India and China being exempted from the 2008–2012 targets, and Australia and the United States being Annex I nations that declined to ratify the treaty because India and China were not compelled to monitor and reduce their emissions. The group of 7 nations now accounts for over half of the world's emissions per year. One of the stated goals is to help India and...

Biological Realms

Biological Realms   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,079 words
Illustration(s):
2

...southern beeches ( Nothofagus ), which are disjunct across the southern continents despite poor mechanisms for dispersal. The separation of South America and Africa probably began in the lower Cretaceous (127 million years ago), Madagascar and India broke away in the mid-Cretaceous (100 million years ago), with India becoming isolated in the late Cretaceous (80 million years ago). At about this time, New Zealand began to drift away from Antarctica, with the rift between Australia and Antarctica occurring in the Eocene (49 million years ago). The breakup of...

Walker, Gilbert

Walker, Gilbert   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

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Current Version:
2005

...variability. His academic career started with a Fellowship at Trinity College, Cambridge (where he read mathematics as an undergraduate) in 1891 . For his work on various dynamical problems, he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1904 . In the same year he went to India to become the second Director-General of Observatories and remained in this post, employing his great organizational and administrative skills, until he reached retirement age in 1924 . He was awarded a knighthood in that year. He then became Professor of Meteorology at Imperial...

Biological Realms

Biological Realms   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
1,732 words
Illustration(s):
2

...the southern beeches ( Nothofagus ) are disjunct across the southern continents despite poor mechanisms for dispersal. The separation of South America and Africa probably began in the lower Cretaceous (127 million years bp ); Madagascar and India broke away in the mid-Cretaceous (100 million years bp ) with India becoming isolated in the late Cretaceous (80 million years bp ). About this time New Zealand began to drift away from Antarctica, with the rift between Australia and Antarctica occurring in the Eocene (49 million years bp ). The breakup of...

Desalination

Desalination   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

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Current Version:
2005

...Development 9.2 (1992), 41–61. Narayanan, P. K. et al. Performance of the First Seawater Electrodialysis Plant in India. In Desalination and Water Reuse: Proceedings of the Twelfth International Symposium, Malta, 15–18 April, 1991 , edited by M. Balaban , 4: 210–211. Natarjan, R. , W. V. B. Ramalingam , and W. P. Harkare . Experience in Installation and Operation of Brackish Water Desalination Plants in Rural Areas of India. IDA Conference on Desalination and Water Reuse: Water: The Challenge of the 90s, Washington, D.C., 25–29 August, 1991 , 2:...

Urban Trends

Urban Trends   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

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Current Version:
2009

...). Table 1. Most Populous Urban Agglomerations, 2005 Rank Name   Estimated Population 1 Tokyo, Japan 35,197,000 2 Mexico City, Mexico 19,411,000 3 New York–Newark, U.S.A. 18,718,000 4 São Paulo, Brazil 18,333,000 5 Mumbai (Bombay), India 18,196,000 6 Delhi, India 15,048,000 7 Shanghai, China 14.503,000 8 Calcutta, India 14,277,000 9 Jakarta, Indonesia 13,215,000 10 Buenos Aires, Argentina 12,550,000 11 Dhaka, Bangladesh 12,430,000 12 Los Angeles–Long Beach–Santa Ana, U.S.A. 12,298.000 13 Karachi, Pakistan 11,608,000 14 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 11,469,000...

Drought

Drought   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

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Current Version:
2009

...measures. It is essential to distinguish between a short-term reduction in rainfall (i.e., drought), and the process of longer-term climate change. [ See Climate Change and Societal Development .] Drought Impacts and Frequency Drought is a worldwide phenomenon. Drylands in India experience drought once every four years, and a similar frequency is observed in Israel, southern Africa, and parts of China, although in the North China Plain there have been thirty-five reported droughts in the last forty years. Australia and the United States have both...

Natural Gas

Natural Gas   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,014 words
Illustration(s):
3

...are sparse and the economics of CNG for drivers is often unfavorable without significant government subsidy, there are only a few million CNG vehicles worldwide today. Perhaps the most visible example of CNG vehicles is in Delhi, India. In 1998 , in an attempt to alleviate horrendous air quality in the city, the Supreme Court of India mandated that all taxis, buses, and rickshaws in Delhi convert from diesel to CNG. The result, admittedly aided by other environmental rules as well, has been a dramatic improvement in the air quality of Delhi....

Nuclear Power

Nuclear Power   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...decades will likely take place in the developing world, especially in Asia, where China and India have ambitious plans for a major nuclear expansion. These two countries presently derive only a small proportion of their electricity from nuclear energy: in China about 2% from 10 reactors and in India about 3% from 16 reactors. China and India each have about a half-dozen reactors under construction. China wants to build as many as 50 reactors by 2030 , and India wants to add another 15 reactors in that time period. Because of construction constraints, these...

Dams

Dams   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,868 words
Illustration(s):
1

...industries and “transform nature” into a machine for the communist state. By the 1970s, the total area flooded by dams in the former U.S.S.R. greatly exceeded that of the United States, and the world's tallest dam—the 300-meter-tall Nurek—was completed in 1980 in Tajikistan. In India, the program of dam construction initiated by the British colonial government was quickly adopted after independence in 1947 by the independent government, which built thousands of dams and associated facilities. Following the Chinese revolution in 1949 , more than 600 dams...

Economic Levels

Economic Levels   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

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Current Version:
2009

...countries. Child-mortality rates demonstrate that increases in income do not always correspond to progress in human development. Measured by wealth generation, India is one of the successes of globalization, having increased its per capita GDP by 4% a year since 1990 , but reduction of child mortality has slowed from 2.9% per year in the 1980s to 2.2% since 1990 . Bangladesh does not match India in average income, but has maintained a 3.4% decline in child-death rates since 1990 (UN Human Development Report 2006 , pp. 265–267). The United Nations...

Malthus, Thomas Robert

Malthus, Thomas Robert   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

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Current Version:
2005

...resource scarcity, as commonly believed, but rather set forth the circumstances under which famine might occur. Born in Sussex, England, and educated at Cambridge University, Malthus was both an ordained clergyman of the Church of England and a professor of economics at the East India College (Hertfordshire). His population essay, pamphlets on trade policy, and Principles of Political Economy ( 1820 ) are among the fundamental works of classical economics. The social-policy implications Malthus drew from his population theory made him a figure of controversy...

Marsh, George Perkins

Marsh, George Perkins   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

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Current Version:
2005

...as barren as the Moon, and his clearly reasoned practical remedies—afforestation, control of grazing, stream management, stabilization of sand dunes—rapidly made Man and Nature a bible among conservation-minded foresters and others in America and Europe, and as far afield as India, South Africa, and the Antipodes. After a period of relative neglect, Man and Nature was rediscovered by geographers and planners in the 1920s and 1930s and served again to galvanize concern over human-induced misuse of natural resources. Celebrated in a 1955 Princeton...

Multilateral Fund

Multilateral Fund   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

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Current Version:
2005

...to non-ozone-depleting substances and processes that do not give any direct return for the expenditure. By the middle of 1997 , the Multilateral Fund had allocated upwards of U.S.$1 billion for more than one thousand activities. China has received the most funding, followed by India and Argentina. When currently approved projects have been implemented, at least 84,000 metric tons of ozone-depleting substances in Article 5 countries will have been phased out, accounting for more than 40 percent of their consumption of these substances. Difficulties the...

Schumacher, Ernst Friedrich

Schumacher, Ernst Friedrich   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

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Current Version:
2005

...Western economics. He noted the extraordinary dependency of industrialized economies on nonrenewable resources and the need to reestablish economies based on renewable resources. These ideas anticipated the debate about limits to growth some fifteen years later. During a visit to India in 1962 , he began thinking about “intermediate technology”: improved, small-scale technology accessible to existing producers that could increase production without creating unemployment. He became convinced that intermediate technology offered an alternative and better path to...

Cartagena Protocol

Cartagena Protocol   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

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Current Version:
2005

...a special subtreaty—a protocol—on risks posed to biological diversity from trade in living organisms whose genetic code had been engineered, known as living modified organisms (LMOs). Four years later, parties to the CBD began drafting the protocol. In 1999 at Cartagena de Indias, Columbia—at what was slated to be the final negotiating session—delegates failed to reconcile their differences over which LMOs would be included and the protocol's relationship to other international trade agreements. Some countries (led by the United States) wanted few limits...

Desalination

Desalination   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

... 9.2 (1992), 41–61. Narayanan, P. K. , et al. “Performance of the First Seawater Electrodialysis Plant in India.” In Desalination and Water Re-Use: Proceedings of the Twelfth International Symposium , edited by M. Balaban , vol. 4, pp. 210–211. Rugby: Institution of Chemical Engineers, 1991. Natarjan, R. , W. V. B. Ramalingam , and W. P. Harkare . “ Experience in Installation and Operation of Brackish Water Desalination Plants in Rural Areas of India. ” IDA Conference on Desalination and Water Reuse: “Water: The Challenge of the 90s,” Washington, D.C.,...

Fossil Fuels

Fossil Fuels   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...to 2030 , largely because of increases in China and India (DOE/EIA, 2007 ). India's use will probably mirror that in most world regions, the growth being for electrical generation. But in China, where alternative energy sources are scarce, much of the growth may be in nonelectrical uses, such as steam and heat for industrial processes and coke for steel plants. Over half the world's coal reserves are in three regions—the United States, the former Soviet Union, and China. Four other countries, Australia, India, Germany, and South Africa, account for an...

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