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India

Subject: History

The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growth India's vast territory can be divided into three main regions ...

Sarabhai, Vikram Ambalal

Sarabhai, Vikram Ambalal (1919–71)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Space Exploration (3 ed.)

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...Organization , the Vikram A. Sarabhai Community Science Centre (formerly the Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station, and India’s first). In the mid-1960s, Sarabhai also chaired India’s Atomic Energy Commission and initiated India’s space programme. He died in his sleep on 31 December 1971 . For his visionary work in the field of space science, Sarabhai was decorated with two of India’s most honourable awards: the Padma Bhushan ( 1966 ) and the Padma Vibhushan (awarded posthumously in 1972...

Vikram A. Sarabhai Community Science Centre

Vikram A. Sarabhai Community Science Centre   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Space Exploration (3 ed.)

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...) under the Government of India’s Department of Space. Founded in 1962 as the Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station, the Centre is located at Thumba on the southwest coast of India and now honours Vikram A Sarabhai , the Centre’s visionary and father of India’s space programme. The Centre specializes in rocket research and is the ISRO’s launch vehicle. Its Space Physics Laboratory also carries out research in atmospheric science and other related space science activities. India’s historic launches of the Chandrayaan (India’s first lunar probe) and the...

Indian National Committee for Space Research

Indian National Committee for Space Research   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Space Exploration (3 ed.)

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...Indian National Committee for Space Research ( INCOSPAR ) India’s first space agency. Formed in 1962 by the government in India, INCOSPAR set up the Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station ( TERLS ) in Thiruvananthapuram for upper atmospheric research before it was superseded seven years later by the Indian Space Research Organization...

Radar Imaging Satellite

Radar Imaging Satellite   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Space Exploration (3 ed.)

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...Radar Imaging Satellite ( RISAT ) A series of India’s first indigenous weather satellites developed by the Indian Space Research Organization to monitor weather for agriculture and disaster management. The first launch ( RISAT-2 ) occurred in April 2009 from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre followed by the postponed RISAT-1 in April 2012 which is equipped with synthetic aperture radar...

Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope

Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Astronomy (3 ed.)

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...Metrewave Radio Telescope ( GMRT ) A radio interferometer at Khodad in Maharashtra state, about 80 km north of Pune, western India, owned and operated by India’s National Centre for Radio Astrophysics. It consists of thirty fully steerable dishes, each 45 m in diameter. Fourteen of the dishes are arranged in a compact central array covering about 1 km 2 while the remainder are spread out in an approximate Y-shape giving baselines up to about 25 km. The array started operation in 1999 ....

Dhawan, Satish

Dhawan, Satish (1920–2002)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Space Exploration (3 ed.)

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...fluid dynamics research in India. Born on 25 September 1920 in Srinagar, India, and educated in India and the United States, Dhawan succeeded Vikram Sarabhai in 1972 as chair of the ISRO; he also chaired the Space Commission and was secretary to the Government of India in the Department of Space. In the decade following his appointment he directed the Indian space programme through a period of extraordinary growth and spectacular achievement. He is credited for setting up the first supersonic wind tunnel in India, at the Indian Institute of Science...

Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle

Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Space Exploration (3 ed.)

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...and has a diameter of 2.8 m and a lift-off mass of 320 tonnes. Its maiden flight occurred on 20 September 1993 . The rocket continues to be a much-desired launch service provider for other countries and was responsible for launching India’s historic Chandrayaan-1 and Mars Orbiter mission crafts. On 15 February 2017 , India used the Polar Launch Satellite Vehicle to successfully place 104 foreign satellites in polar orbit, tripling the previous record held by Russia for the most number of satellites sent to space in a single...

Ootacamund Radio Astronomy Centre

Ootacamund Radio Astronomy Centre   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Astronomy (3 ed.)

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...Radio Astronomy Centre A radio astronomy observatory in Tamil Nadu state, southern India, founded in 1968 , owned and operated by India’s National Centre for Radio Astrophysics; its name is popularly abbreviated to Ooty. The main instrument is the Ooty Radio Telescope, a parabolic cylinder 530 m long and 30 m wide, opened in 1970 . It observes at a wavelength of 0.92 m. Uniquely, its long axis is aligned north–south on a hill with a slope equal to the latitude of the station (about 11° north). Radio sources are tracked by rotating the cylinder...

International Liquid Mirror Telescope

International Liquid Mirror Telescope   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Astronomy (3 ed.)

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...Liquid Mirror Telescope A 4-m reflector with a mirror of liquid mercury being built at Devasthal, India, by an international consortium of organizations from Belgium, Canada, India, and Poland. The mirror consists of a dish containing a thin layer of mercury spun at 7.5 rev/min to create a parabolic surface. The telescope will scan a strip of sky half a degree wide at the zenith as the Earth rotates. http://www.ilmt.ulg.ac.be Official telescope...

ASTROSAT

ASTROSAT   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Space Exploration (3 ed.)

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...ASTROSAT India’s first multi-wavelength astronomy satellite. Launched on 28 September 2015 by a Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle from Satish Dhawan Space Centre , and placed in Earth orbit 650 km above the Earth’s surface. Seen as a smaller version of the Hubble Space Telescope, ASTROSAT will take spectra and measure brightness variations of galactic and extra-galactic sources at optical, ultraviolet, and X-ray wavelengths...

Cowell, Philip Herbert

Cowell, Philip Herbert (1870–1949)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Astronomy (3 ed.)

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...Philip Herbert ( 1870–1949 ) English celestial mechanician , born in India . He was concerned in particular with the motion of the nodes of the Moon’s orbit and its secular acceleration . Cowell’s method for calculating the motions of mutually gravitationally interacting bodies was used by him and A. C. D. Crommelin to pinpoint the return of Halley’s Comet in 1910 ....

Indian Deep-Space Network

Indian Deep-Space Network   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Space Exploration (3 ed.)

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...Indian Deep-Space Network ( IDSN ) A network of antennae and communication facilities that support India’s spacecraft missions . Its main features are two antennae (18 m and 32 m) at the IDSN campus in Byalalu, on the outskirts of Bangalore. Several stations in the western hemisphere, and an additional one in Bearslake, Russia, augment the IDSN to improve mission coverage and provide support from the antipodal point. The IDSN station has the responsibility of receiving spacecraft health data as well as the payload data in real time. The 18-m dish antenna...

Astro-Rivelatore Gamma Immagini Leggero

Astro-Rivelatore Gamma Immagini Leggero   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Space Exploration (3 ed.)

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...The 352-kg craft has highly innovative scientific instruments for observing transient gamma-ray bursts and solar flares as well as more steady sources such as galactic nuclei and pulsars . Launched into low Earth orbit on 23 April 2007 by an Indian PSLV rocket (India’s first commercial launch), the satellite has the smallest inclination (2.5°) ever achieved by a high-energy space mission. The craft was designed for an operative life of only two years, but it celebrated its 50 000th orbit on 30 December 2016 and continues to operate with high...

Indian Space Research Organization

Indian Space Research Organization   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Space Exploration (3 ed.)

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... 24 September 2014 . As of September 2017 , the ISRO has launched 92 spacecraft (with 11 launch or spacecraft failures), 64 of which were launched from India (nine unsuccessfully); and two were re-entry missions. ISRO has also launched 209 foreign satellites to date. https://www.isro.gov.in News of the activities of the Indian Space Research Organization. The site includes information about India's space centre network and research facilities, and well-illustrated pages profiling specific...

Chandrayaan-1

Chandrayaan-1   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Space Exploration (3 ed.)

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...Chandrayaan-1 India's first mission to the Moon. The 1 380 kg spacecraft was launched successfully by a PSLV-C11 rocket on 22 October 2008 from Sriharikota. The spacecraft orbited the Moon at a height of 100 km and mapped the chemical composition of the Moon’s surface. The spacecraft carried 11 scientific instruments built in India, the USA, the UK, Germany, Sweden, and Bulgaria, which were also used in the search for surface or sub-surface ice, particularly at the poles, and to prepare a 3D map of the Moon’s topography. After the successful...

Thirty Meter Telescope

Thirty Meter Telescope   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Astronomy (3 ed.)

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...Meter Telescope ( TMT ) A large reflector planned by the US, Japan, China, India, and Canada on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, that will operate at visible to mid-infrared wavelengths (0.3–30  μ ‎m). It will have a mirror of 30 m diameter consisting of 492 hexagonal segments each 1.44 m wide and is planned to come into operation in 2024 . http://www.tmt.org/ Official telescope...

Major Atmospheric Gamma-ray Imaging Cherenkov telescopes

Major Atmospheric Gamma-ray Imaging Cherenkov telescopes   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Astronomy (3 ed.)

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...Observatory , Canary Islands. They detect the Cerenkov radiation produced when gamma rays strike the Earth’s atmosphere. The MAGIC telescopes are owned and operated by a consortium of institutions from Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, Bulgaria, Croatia, Finland, Poland, India, and Japan. MAGIC-I began operation in 2004 and MAGIC-II in 2009 . https://wwwmagic.mpp.mpg.de/ Official telescopes...

Murchison Widefield Array

Murchison Widefield Array   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Astronomy (3 ed.)

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...The array observes at wavelengths from 1 to 3.7 m. A core region some 1.5 km wide contains 112 tiles, with the remaining 16 tiles more widely spaced, giving baselines up to 3 km. The MWA is an international project involving institutes from Australia, the United States, Canada, India, Japan, and New Zealand. http://www.mwatelescope.org/ Official telescope...

Indian Astronomical Observatory

Indian Astronomical Observatory   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Astronomy (3 ed.)

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...Astronomical Observatory An observatory of the Indian Institute of Astrophysics, opened in 2001 at an altitude of 4500 metres on Mt Saraswati at Hanle in the Himalayas of northern India. Its main instrument is the 2-m optical–infrared Himalayan Chandra Telescope (HCT). It is also the site of the Major Atmospheric Cherenkov Experiment Telescope (MACE) , a gamma-ray telescope. http://www.iiap.res.in/centers/iao Official observatory web...

Aryabhata

Aryabhata   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Space Exploration (3 ed.)

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...Aryabhata India's first artificial satellite, launched by a Soviet rocket in April 1975 . It was built by the Indian Space Research Organization and named after a fifth-century Indian mathematician. The satellite had its data receiving centre in Bangalore, where a toilet was converted to serve the purpose. A power failure on its fourth day in orbit ended the intended experiments in X-ray astronomy and other areas, and all signals were lost the next day. Aryabhata burned up on re-entry in February 1992...

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