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Overview

India

Subject: History

The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growth India's vast territory can be divided into three main regions ...

Sickle cell disease

Sickle cell disease   Reference library

A-Z of Plastic Surgery

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Medicine and health, Surgery
Length:
110 words

...• Caused by substitution of glutamic acid by valine on the haemoglobin βchain. • Inherited as an autosomal gene. Hetero-zygotes have both normal and abnormal haemoglobin. • Sickle cell trait gives a relative resistance against malaria. • Most common in West Africa, central India and also in Mediterranean populations. • Distorted red blood cells increase blood viscosity with capillary and venous thrombosis, and organ infarction. • Races at risk should be screened by electrophoresis. • For surgery, patient should be well hydrated. Keep well oxygenated...

Palate carcinoma

Palate carcinoma   Reference library

A-Z of Plastic Surgery

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Medicine and health, Surgery
Length:
190 words

...carcinoma • More commonly in older men. Rare in the West. • Due to tobacco and alcohol and in India a thermal element due to reverse smoking. • Presentation may be with swelling, bleeding or pain. Bone invasion occurs late. Nodal involvement is seen in 16% of hard palate cancers and 37% of soft palate lesions. Treatment: • Resection through the mouth with underlying bone. • Radiotherapy may cause bone exposure and necrosis. • With more extensive lesions, a partial hemimaxillectomy is performed through a Weber-Fergusson incision, and reconstructed...

Tattoo

Tattoo   Reference library

A-Z of Plastic Surgery

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Medicine and health, Surgery
Length:
323 words

...May require serial excision, tissue expansion or a flap. • Laser : short pulses disrupt tattoo material. Because the energy is high and the duration short, the pigment can be eliminated without injuring adjacent dermis. Match wavelength to colour. All work well with black and India ink: ○ ruby not effective with red, but good for green pigment; ○ YAG good for red poor with green; ○ alexandrite good for blue-black and green, poor for orange and yellow; ○ may develop scarring and hypopigmentation, response may be extremely variable; the most difficult to...

History of plastic surgery

History of plastic surgery   Reference library

A-Z of Plastic Surgery

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Medicine and health, Surgery
Length:
378 words

...first used by Von Graefe in 1818 in his Rhinoplastik. Goal of plastic surgery is the restoration of normal form and function and the enhancement of form. Egypt: The Edwin Smith papyrus dated at 3000 bc contains description of the management of facial trauma and fractures. India: The first recorded scripts of actual plastic surgery were recorded in the Sanskrit texts 2600 years ago. This was required due to frequent acts of facial mutilation during conflict and for unfaithfulness. Sushruta wrote in the Samhita (encyclopaedia) about the forehead or cheek...

Leeches

Leeches   Reference library

A-Z of Plastic Surgery

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Medicine and health, Surgery
Length:
304 words

...Leeches are worms of the Annelid phylum, which feed on blood extracted from the host. The most common type used is Hirudo medicinalis from Southeast Asia and Europe. They were used 3500 years ago in Egypt. Also in India. They were used in the Middle Ages and extensively in the 19th century for bloodletting. They have been used since 1960 in plastic surgery. In 1981 there was a reported success rate of 60% artery-only digit replants. Indications: Venous congestion may lead to oedema, reduced capillary and arterial flow, and venous and arterial...

Palate carcinoma

Palate carcinoma  

Reference type:
Overview Page
• More commonly in older men. Rare in the West.• Due to tobacco and alcohol and in India a thermal element due to reverse smoking.• Presentation may be with swelling ...

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