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Overview

India

Subject: History

The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growth India's vast territory can be divided into three main regions ...

Indian Medical Service

Indian Medical Service   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...The network of preventive and therapeutic services established in India during the period of British colonial occupation, primarily for the benefit of the occupiers. Medical scientists and physicians of the IMS made important contributions to identification and control of tropical vector-borne and other diseases. It was the origin of the contemporary All-India Institutes and other outstanding health research institutions in India, as well as the medical and public health services of modern India. Similar services were established by other European powers, such...

isocyanide

isocyanide   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...isocyanide A compound of nitrogen and carbon with an organic or inorganic radical that is the basis for important industrial chemicals, including pesticides, some of which are highly toxic. For example, methyl isocyanate was responsible for the industrial disaster in Bhopal , India, in 1984 . ...

methyl isocyanate

methyl isocyanate   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...methyl isocyanate An extremely toxic precursor used in insecticide production that was responsible for one of the worst industrial accidents ever reported, when it escaped from a Union Carbide plant in Bhopal , India, in 1984 . ...

Omsk hemorrhagic fever

Omsk hemorrhagic fever   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Omsk hemorrhagic fever A tick-borne viral hemorrhagic fever caused by a flavivirus that is prevalent in western Siberia, first described by physicians in Omsk, Russia. A similar or identical disease occurs elsewhere, for instance, in Kyasanur Forest in India. ...

lakh

lakh   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...lakh A Hindi and Urdu word for 100,000. It is included in this dictionary because it appears as the denominator for many rates in public health documents from India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. A crore, 10 million, is 100 lakhs. ...

rauwolfia

rauwolfia   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...rauwolfia A plant native to India that contains an alkaloid, reserpine, long used in Ayurvedic medicine to treat fever, anxiety, and depression and as an antidote to snake poisoning. In the 1950s, Western physicians learned about its efficacy, and it had a vogue in the treatment of hypertension. ...

endogamy

endogamy   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...endogamy ( inbreeding ) Selection of a sexual partners (i.e., marriage) from within a relatively small and restricted gene pool, often a defined, often close-knit ethnic group, as in the caste system of India and also among the members of a cultural minority, such as an immigrant community. ...

untouchables

untouchables   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...untouchables Among Hindus in India, the people of the lowest caste , who are identified and regarded by other Hindus as persons with whom they can have no social contact and only the minimal contact necessary to demand of them menial tasks or services that no one else is willing to perform. Health experience and access to health care are poor compared with those of members of other castes. The caste system is breaking down in modern India under pressure from political and economic change and tends not to be as powerful in the Hindu diaspora as in the Indian...

Industrial Revolution

Industrial Revolution   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...in the 18th century after the invention of the steam engine. It progressed rapidly throughout the 19th century and extended to the rest of western Europe, the United States, and Japan, then to the former Soviet Union. A wave of modernizing industrialization occurred in India, Brazil, Mexico, Indonesia, Thailand, China, and some oil-rich nations in the late- 20th-century period of globalization . ...

juvenile obesity

juvenile obesity   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...television, often snacking on junk foods while doing so. In the United States in the early 21st century , the prevalence reached 20%, and it is higher in some ethnic groups. It is also common in the European Union and among adolescent children of affluent parents in China, India, and other industrializing nations. ...

yaws

yaws   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...yaws A tropical infectious disease now confined mainly to central Africa and the West Indies, with scattered foci in India, Southeast Asia, and some Pacific islands, caused by a spirochete, Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue , an organism closely related to the spirochete of syphilis. It causes skin lesions that ulcerate and is transmitted by contact with the seropurulent discharge. It is a chronic disease but, unlike syphilis, it does not attack the central nervous system. The word comes from a Carib Indian dialect word, yaya , meaning a sore. ...

foundling

foundling   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...by a desperate woman unable or unwilling to care for it. In the 19th century and earlier, foundlings were common enough to justify special hospitals and orphanages to care for them. The practice of indigent mothers abandoning newborn infants still occurs rather frequently in India, Pakistan, and other low-income countries and occasionally in wealthy countries, including the United States and Canada. There is not necessarily a penalty for abandonment in such circumstances. ...

sample registration system

sample registration system   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...sample registration system A method and procedure for estimating vital rates in national and regional populations by intensively registering and verifying vital events in population samples. For instance, in India more than 4,000 rural and 2,000 urban sample units, with a total of more than 6 million persons (i.e., less than 1% of the total national population) are included in a sample registration system that provides a reasonably reliable picture of the national pattern of vital events at a cost that is feasible and reasonable. ...

Bhopal

Bhopal   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Bhopal A city in central India that was the site of one of the worst environmental disasters of modern times. In 1984 , an accident at a Union Carbide plant released large quantities of methyl isocyanate (a chemical used to synthesize carbamate pesticides) into the neighborhood around the factory. More than 40,000 and perhaps as many as 300,000 people were poisoned, and more than 2,000 people died almost instantly. Many survivors were left with serious residual disability, including blindness and paralysis of voluntary muscles. ...

dracunculiasis

dracunculiasis   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...worm, Dracunculus medinensis , that has a life cycle in which the larval stage is passed in minute freshwater Crustacea ( Copepoda , or water fleas). These infect humans when they drink water containing the water fleas. The disease was formerly common in West Africa, Yemen, and India. It is yielding to efforts to eradicate it but is still endemic in about a dozen countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. ...

myocardial infarction

myocardial infarction   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...or thrombosis, or both. This is a common life-threatening condition that occurs in the advanced stages of coronary heart disease and is among the most common causes of death in many Western industrial nations. It is increasingly common in many industrializing nations, such as India, and indeed worldwide, except in Sub-Saharan Africa. ...

hygiene

hygiene   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...and prevention of pollution. Hygiene, as the ancient Greeks understood, includes a commitment to preserving physical fitness through exercise, a balanced diet, and regular rest and sleep. Hygieia was the goddess of health in Greek myths. Other early civilizations in China and India flourished in part because they too understood elementary principles of hygiene. See also sanitation . ...

Koch, Robert

Koch, Robert (1843–1910)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...discovery of many important pathogenic bacteria, using high-quality microscopes and newly developed methods of bacterial staining and culture (some of which he invented). His discoveries included the pathogens responsible for anthrax, cholera, and tuberculosis, and in travels to India and Africa, he did seminal work on many other diseases, including plague, malaria, African trypanosomiasis, and rinderpest. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1905 . ...

Anamorphic Map

Anamorphic Map   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Epidemiology (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Medicine and health, Public Health and Epidemiology
Length:
120 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the distribution of wealth and power in the world, this cartogram sizes the countries according to their relative financial status, here presented through gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, offering an alternative world view to a regular map. Countries such as China and India become much smaller, next to giants in Western Europe, North America and Japan. Africa represents a minor speck, while South and Central America land somewhere in between. Source: GRID-Arendal. 62 With permission. ...

syndromic approach to treatment

syndromic approach to treatment   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Public Health (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...of patients presenting with a certain cluster of symptoms and signs have the same condition, and that therefore all can be treated in the same way. It is a justifiable “shortcut” when a dangerous epidemic occurs, especially if resources are limited. The method has been used in India to treat large numbers of village women with vaginal discharges on the assumption that their condition is due to bacterial infection, but when samples of these women have been investigated bacteriologically most show no evidence of bacterial infection. ...

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