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India

Subject: History

The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growth India's vast territory can be divided into three main regions ...

India

India   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Medicine (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Medicine and health
Length:
3,187 words

...of northern India further devalued extant medical routines and saw the development of imported variants based on Persian and Arabian practices. Unani was introduced into India around the 11th century ad by the Mughals and Siddha replaced Ayurveda. These, in turn gave way to modern western medicine with the arrival of Europeans to the subcontinent. The Portuguese were the first to attempt to set up a hospital amid a medical school in Velha Goa. The present Goa Medical College is a continuation of that effort. The first western medical book in India was Garcia...

NATO phonetic alphabet

NATO phonetic alphabet n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...phonetic alphabet n . The standard list of words used to identify letters of the alphabet unambiguously in police and maritime communications, air traffic control, and military contexts: Alpha, Bravo, Charlie, Delta, Echo, Foxtrot, Golf, Hotel, India, Juliet, Kilo, Lima, Mike, November, Oscar, Papa, Quebec, Romeo, Sierra, Tango, Uniform, Victor, Whiskey, X-ray, Yankee, Zulu. [Named after NATO, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, which standardized...

dhat

dhat n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... n. A culture-bound syndrome found in India, where there is another similar syndrome called jiryan , and Sri Lanka, where a syndrome resembling dhat is called sukra prameha , characterized by severe anxiety , together with hypochondria focused on concerns about weakness and exhaustion, attributed to excessive discharge of semen by both men and women (also believed to secrete semen), and whitish discolouration of urine interpreted as semen loss. Also written dhatu . Compare shen-k’uei . [From Hindi dhatura a plant with strongly narcotic...

intrusion

intrusion n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...sound, especially in allegro speech , between two syllables, neither of which contains the sound when the syllable is spoken in isolation, or the letter representing it in that position, such as the /r/ often heard in such phrases as the idea ( r ) of it, law ( r ) and order, India ( r ) and Pakistan, visa ( r ) application , and the Shah ( r ) of Iran . Compare linking r . intrusive adj...

koro

koro n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...A less common female variant of the syndrome, focused on fear of the nipples or vulva retracting, is also recognized. Also called shook yong, shuk yang, suk yeong , or suo yang in Chinese-speaking areas, rok-joo in Thailand, and jinjinia bemar or jinjin in north-eastern India. [From Malay koro to...

animism

animism n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...desires and intentions to plants, inanimate objects, or natural phenomena. The term was first used in this sense by the British social anthropologist Sir Edward Burnett Tylor ( 1832–1917 ) in his book Primitive Culture ( 1871 ) to describe the beliefs of the ‘ruder tribes’ of India, who believed, for example, that the sun shines in order to provide warmth. Although the French anthropologist Lucien Lévy-Bruhl ( 1857–1939 ) criticized such usage in 1910 in his book Les Fonctions Mentales dans les Sociétés Inférieures (translated into English under the...

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in Southern Africa

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in Southern Africa   Reference library

Clinton Gahwiler, Lee Hill, and Valérie Grand’Maison

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
11,560 words
Illustration(s):
1

...a negative addiction to running. South African Journal of Sports Medicine , 4 (4), 6–11. Arksey, H. , & O’Malley, L. (2005). Scoping studies: Towards a methodological framework. International Journal of Social Research Methodology , 8 (1), 19–32. Arouff, J. P. (2015). India in pacts to develop infrastructure in Mauritius , Seychelles. . Bale, S. (1993). Obituary: Danie Craven . The Independent (London) . . Basson, C. J. (1997). Psychological preparation for a low intensity marathon squash event. South African Journal of Sports Medicine , 4...

Leadership Skills in Sport

Leadership Skills in Sport   Reference library

W. James Weese and P. Chelladurai

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...things they would not normally have done. However, their styles were diametrically different. Patton’s authoritarian, direct style of leadership, while effective in World War II, would have been a dismal failure if mimicked by Mahatma Gandhi in his movement against the British in India ( Howell, Dorfman, & Kerr, 1986 ). The same may be said for Vince Lombardi. His autocratic leadership style may not be effective in dealing with the modern-day athlete on a large, long-term contract worth 10 times that of his coach. The dictatorial leadership style would...

Goodyear, Charles

Goodyear, Charles (1800–1860)   Reference library

Cai Guise-Richardson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...textiles, owned one of the patents rendered invalid by the 1849 reissue. A shifting coalition of manufacturers and investors supporting Goodyear vied with a similar coalition supporting Day in the courts throughout the remainder of Goodyear’s life. In the notorious “Great India Rubber Case,” in 1852 , Daniel Webster spoke for Goodyear. The courts found in Goodyear’s favor in this and most of the more than one hundred related lawsuits. The validity of the patent itself was never directly tested. Goodyear’s coalition gained a patent extension in 1858 on...

Wiener, Norbert

Wiener, Norbert (1894–1964)   Reference library

Thomas J. Bergin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Society awarded him the Bocher Prize. MIT appointed him “Institute Professor” when he reached retirement age, honoring his cross-disciplinary interests. He also traveled extensively, becoming a visiting professor in Peiping, China ( 1935–1936 ), and lecturing at other times in India, Japan, Norway, Italy, and France. In 1964 , shortly before his death, Wiener was awarded the National Medal of Science by President Lyndon B. Johnson. He wrote two autobiographies: I Am a Mathematician ( 1956 ) and Ex-Prodigy: My Childhood and Youth ( 1979 ). [ See also ...

Cotton Gin

Cotton Gin   Reference library

Neil Dahlstrom

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...States, long-staple cotton was being grown in the Deep South, but climate limited its expansion. Recently introduced short-staple cotton, or green-seed cotton, offered tremendous prospects, but the traditional method of separating seed from fiber, based on a device created in India centuries before called a churka, was ineffective with green-seed cotton. Whitney’s cotton gin marked the beginning of a transition from high-quality, long-staple cotton to lower-quality short-staple cotton that could be produced in staggering quantities. A single machine could...

Hybrid Seeds

Hybrid Seeds   Reference library

Neil Dahlstrom

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...with a dwarf Japanese strain to produce a hybrid short enough to survive the wind. Borlaug’s dwarf wheat sparked what is now known as the “green revolution,” so dramatically increasing yields in Mexico that over the next several decades new varieties were introduced in Pakistan, India, and other areas of the world. Pakistan’s wheat crop grew from a pre–green revolution total of 4.6 million tons to 8.4 million tons just four years later (“Norman Borlaug—Nobel Lecture”). In 1970 , Borlaug was awarded the Noble Peace Prize for his work. Genetically Modified...

Hutchinson, G. Evelyn

Hutchinson, G. Evelyn (1903–1991)   Reference library

Nancy G. Slack

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...his unusual (and encouraging) teaching methods; many of his more than 50 graduate and postdoctoral students became leading ecologists. Hutchinson was also one of the twentieth-century’s best writers of science. In 1932 he was the lead biologist on the Yale Expedition to North India (now Ladakh). He published an account of his journey and his research on the very high altitude lakes as The Clear Mirror , a literary success. For many years he wrote essays (Marginalia) on a wide variety of scientific topics for the American Scientist . Many were collected into...

Missionaries and Science and Medicine

Missionaries and Science and Medicine   Reference library

John Stenhouse

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...much attempt to evangelize. Ida Scudder ( 1870–1960 ) illustrates the feminizing, professionalizing, institution-building, and ecumenical dynamics transforming mainline missions. Born in India into a second-generation missionary family from the Reformed Church, she studied medicine at Cornell before opening a new hospital for women and children at Vellore in India. There she developed a new surgical technique for repairing vesicovaginal fistulae later known as the “Ida Scudder operation.” The Christian Medical College and Hospital she founded at Vellore...

Atoms For Peace

Atoms For Peace   Reference library

Michael Aaron Dennis

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...1955 , the United States had negotiated 24 bilateral agreements with nations seeking nuclear reactors for either research or power; by 1965 the number had increased to 39. Among the countries acquiring nuclear materials and technology within the Atoms for Peace framework were India and Pakistan, both of which used the technology as foundations for their own development of nuclear weapons. Although designed as a program to halt the proliferation of nuclear weapons, nations could easily subvert the programs’ safeguards and monitoring programs. In the early...

Sickle-Cell Disease

Sickle-Cell Disease   Reference library

Todd L. Savitt

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Disease Sickle-cell disease (SCD) comprises a group of genetically transmitted blood diseases found in the United States primarily in persons of African ancestry and worldwide in persons with roots in west and central Africa, India, eastern Saudi Arabia, and the Mediterranean. In early-twenty-first-century America an estimated 70,000 to 100,000 persons had SCD and approximately 8 percent of the African American population carried the sickle-cell genetic trait. The medical history of SCD in America is intertwined with the country’s racial history. In ...

Psychopharmaceutical Drugs

Psychopharmaceutical Drugs   Reference library

Cai Guise-Richardson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...decrease in the number of long-term institutionalized patients between 1953 and 1960 . Researchers in programs investigating traditional medicines isolated compounds with antipsychotic properties from the root of Rauwolfia serpentina , a plant used for centuries in India for the treatment of insanity. Frank Berger and Bernard Ludwig synthesized the first anxiolytic, meprobamate, in 1950 . Wallace Laboratories in Milltown, New Jersey, launched the drug as Miltown in 1955 as a “minor tranquilizer.” Psychiatric institutions used Miltown, but...

Nuclear Weapons

Nuclear Weapons   Reference library

Barton C. Hacker and Paul S. Boyer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...nuclear weapons remained a major concern. In the 1990s, fearful that nuclear know-how might fall into dangerous hands, the Clinton administration sought to safeguard nuclear installations in the former Soviet Union. Pakistan’s test of a nuclear weapon in 1998 (thereby matching India, which had exploded a nuclear device as early as 1974 ) stirred fears of a regional nuclear arms race. After the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks, the U.S. government focused on a possible nuclear attack by a rogue state or even a small terrorist band. Under President George...

Asthma and Allergy

Asthma and Allergy   Reference library

Carla C. Keirns

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...from Asia and the Americas that ancient European medicine had not known. From the Americas, stimulants such as tobacco and cocaine to open the breathing passages combined with lobelia and ipecac, used to induce vomiting and give the lungs more space to expand. Stramonium from India and teas and acupuncture from China, all used to thin the mucus and ease clearing of the lungs by coughing, rounded out the medicines for asthma available to Americans and Europeans in the late nineteenth century, derived from a worldwide colonial trade in medicinal plants. Beyond...

Autism

Autism   Reference library

Gil Eyal and Brendan Hart

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Minds: Remapping the World of Autism . New York: Basic Books, 2007. Counters the notion that there is an autism epidemic through an account of broader shifts in American psychiatry and special education. The author interviewed parents and professionals in several countries (India and South Africa, among others) and provides several suggestive cross-cultural examples and makes illuminating comparisons with diagnostic practices in South Korea and France. Hacking, Ian . “Autistic Autobiographies.” Philosophical Transactions of the British Royal Society, B 364...

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