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India

Subject: History

The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growth India's vast territory can be divided into three main regions ...

India from Indira Gandhi's Emergency

India from Indira Gandhi's Emergency   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
9,017 words

...changing legal scenario. Basu, Durga Das . Human Rights in Constitutional Law . New Delhi, India: Prentice-Hall, 1994. Provides a comparative analysis of the place of fundamental rights in the Indian constitution. Baxi, Upendra , ed. The Right to Be Human . New Delhi, India: Lancer International and India International Centre, 1987. Twelve essays address issues of discrimination and violence. Chatterjee, Partha , ed. State and Politics in India . New Delhi, India: Oxford University Press, 1997. Fifteen articles survey and analyze political institutions and...

India from Indira Gandhi's Emergency

India from Indira Gandhi's Emergency  

Unbounded optimism and expectation existed when India became an independent nation on 15 August 1947, after nearly 150 years of British rule. It was widely assumed that because colonial rule ...
Indo-Pak Massacres

Indo-Pak Massacres  

The British departure from the Indian subcontinent in August 1947 and the division of that area into the dominions of India and Pakistan were accompanied by large-scale violence. The epicenter ...
Roma in Europe

Roma in Europe  

The Roma (also known as Gypsies) are a stateless transnational ethnic minority who originated in northwestern India (current Punjab region) and migrated westward in the twelfth century, reaching and ...
Kashmir

Kashmir   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
5,370 words

...1992. Wirsing, Robert G. India, Pakistan, and the Kashmir Dispute . New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994. Wirsing, Robert G. Kashmir in the Shadow of War: Regional Rivalries in a Nuclear Age . New York: M. E. Sharp, 2002. Human Rights and Security NGO Reports Amnesty International, India. “If they are dead, tell us: ‘Disappearances’ in Jammu and Kashmir.” In Amnesty International 2008 , ASA 20/002/1999. Amnesty International USA, 1999. Amnesty International, India. “India: Torture, Rape and Deaths in Custody.” In India: Press Coverage of the Amnesty...

Indo-Pak Massacres

Indo-Pak Massacres   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
6,672 words

...Leading up to and Following the Partition of India . 2d ed. New Delhi: Oxford University Press 1999. Mansergh, N. , ed. The Transfer of Power 1942–1947 . Vol. 10. London: HMSO, 1981. Menon, Ritu , and Kamla Bhasin . Borders and Boundaries: Women in India's Partition . New Delhi: Kali for Women, 1998. Moon, Penderel . Divide and Quit: An Eyewitness Account of the Partition of India . New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1998. Pandey, Gyanendra . Remembering Partition: Violence, Nationalism, and History in India . Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press,...

Amartya Sen

Amartya Sen   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,073 words

...Nobel Prize money to create the Pratichi Trust as an agent for promoting education, women's rights, and health care in India and Bangladesh. Its research has documented failings and corruption in India's public health and educational systems during a time of privatization. Sen acknowledges enjoying more than fifty years as a cancer survivor as the result of private health care available to those with means. He nevertheless insists that India's government has a moral and political obligation to provide improved public hospitals and schools in order to raise...

Tibet

Tibet   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
4,902 words

...fourteenth Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso, and approximately eighty thousand Tibetans into India in 1959 , the small town of Dharamsala in the north of India has served as the seat of an internationally unrecognized Tibetan government-in-exile. In this town there is a Tibetan administration, parliament, and rudimentary judicial system with limited jurisdiction function. Elections are held every four years among exiled Tibetans, although no formal political parties exist. In India, Tibetans have reestablished their own education and health systems and revived the...

Pakistan

Pakistan   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,140 words

...because of its May 1998 nuclear tests, which followed those of India three weeks earlier. His efforts to forge better relations with India and his quest for reconciliation in Afghanistan following the ascendancy of the Taliban were foiled by the army's seizure of power. This takeover, led by General Pervez Musharraf ( b. 1943 ) occurred on 11 October 1999 , at a time when, after the skirmishes over Kargil Heights in the disputed territory of Kashmir, the relationship between India and Pakistan had seriously deteriorated. The Events of 9/11 and Their...

Hinduism

Hinduism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,307 words

...society in contemporary India and the broader Hindu world. [ See also Catholicism ; Confucianism ; Culture and Human Rights ; East Asian Values ; History of Human Rights ; Human Security ; India from Indira Gandhi's Emergency ; Islam ; Judaism ; Protestantism ; and Religious Freedom .] Bibliography Béteille, André . Caste, Class, and Power: Changing Patterns of Stratification in a Tanjore Village . Berkeley: University of California Press, 1965. Béteille, André . The Idea of Natural Inequality and Other Essays . Delhi, India, and Oxford: Oxford...

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,975 words

...was the beginning of an armed conflict that would shortly draw in forces from neighboring India. India, not surprisingly, has taken a great interest in events in its tiny neighbor to the south for a number of reasons. Although India allegedly supported, at various points in time, the LTTE and other Tamil guerrilla groups, it also sought to offer its good offices for peace negotiations. Driving this interest was, in part, the fact that the southernmost state in India, Tamil Nadu, with a population of more than 50 million, has a Tamil majority. There were also...

Commonwealth of Nations

Commonwealth of Nations   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,068 words

...of human rights. The Commonwealth can punch above its weight if it connects with broader coalitions and networks, such as the Group of Twenty Finance Ministry and Central Bank Governors (G20), which includes Commonwealth members like India and South Africa and nonmembers like China and Brazil. The intrusion of Brazil, Russia, India, and China during the early twenty-first century as the intermediate level between the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries and third world countries (fragile states) may open up new opportunities for the...

Salman Rushdie

Salman Rushdie   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,721 words

...novel, Shame , in which he depicted the political turmoil in Pakistan by basing his characters on Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and General Mohammad Zia-ul-Haq . This novel reflects the immigrant outlook, of which Rushdie seemed fully cognizant. In 1987 he went to India and found the country riddled by Hindu, Muslim, and Sikh communalisms, tempering the optimism regarding the rational Indian generation born in 1947 that he had expressed in the conclusion of Midnight's Children . It was after this trip that he began writing The Satanic Verses...

Colonialism

Colonialism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,340 words

...Indian empire into India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka, Britain bowed to the demands of the Indian National Congress and granted India independence in 1947 . The Republic of India was proclaimed soon after, in 1950 . However, it was only in 1956 , after the Suez crisis, that the United Kingdom pulled back from its global role, which was also about the time that France lost its fight to maintain control of Algeria and Vietnam in 1962 and 1954 , respectively. The Dutch also gave up trying to hold principally Indonesia. The independence of India marked the...

Sexual and Gender Diversity

Sexual and Gender Diversity   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
9,639 words

...society. This is true with kathoey in Thailand, bakla in the Philippines, waria in Indonesia, mak nyahs in Malaysia, hijra in India and Bangladesh, and metis in Nepal. Other names may also be used. These groups have no equivalents in the contemporary West or Confucian-influenced societies in East Asia. Their members are biological males or sometimes intersexuals, who dress as women or in a feminine manner. In India, they often undergo castration. Only a minority, it seems, have undergone sex reassignment surgery. Some find a place in entertainment,...

Film

Film   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
10,059 words

...France/Morocco/Belgium/Algeria, 2006. Dirty Pretty Things . Directed by Stephen Frears, USA/UK, 2002. Do the Right Thing . Directed by Spike Lee, USA, 1989. Earth . Directed by Deepa Mehta, India/Canada, 1998. Edge of Heaven . Directed by Fatih Akin, Germany/Turkey, 2007. Eyes on the Prize . Directed by Henry Hampton, USA, 1987. Fire . Directed by Deepa Mehta, India/Canada, 1996. Ghosts . Directed by Nick Broomfield, UK, 2006. Ghosts of Cité Soleil . Directed by Asger Leth & Milos Loncarevic, Denmark/USA, 2006. Ghosts of Mississippi . Directed by Rob...

Art and Images

Art and Images   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,916 words

...aspect of art in our times outside Europe and North America. In India, Vivan Sundaram has worked in his art to combat religious fundamentalism. In Pakistan, Salima Hashmi has produced quiet and beautiful works, such as her semiabstract painting People Wept at Dawn , which acts as a memorial to suffering for those who protest human rights abuses. Artists in Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka have produced much powerful work confronting the legacies of colonialism, partition between India and Pakistan, and civil and religious violence in the Indian...

AIDS/HIV

AIDS/HIV   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,225 words

...HIV are married. In India, husbands who spend months away from home as truck drivers and traders often engage in sex with sex workers or with other men; when they return home, they may infect their wives with HIV. A 2006 study determined that almost 40 percent of India's HIV-positive people are women, with a large number of them monogamous wives of husbands with multiple sex partners. Because few HIV prevention programs target married women, their level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS is often lower than men's. Roughly half of women in India knew about AIDS...

Human Trafficking

Human Trafficking   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
6,004 words

...anti-trafficking units in India reported NGO involvement in 90 percent of rescue operations, and the police are legally obliged to enlist women when forcibly removing prostitutes from brothels. In the United States, NGO contractors with expertise in law and social work interview rescued victims to determine whether they were forcibly trafficked. NGOs also compete for substantial private-foundation and government grants. The Gates Foundation awarded a million-dollar HIV/AIDS four-year grant to a sex-workers union in Calcutta, India. The faith-based...

Racial Discrimination

Racial Discrimination   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
6,239 words

...of business corporations that highly profited from this growing trade. The most successful Portuguese, British, Dutch, French, and Prussian corporations were the Company of Cachéo and the Grão-Pará and Maranhão Company; the British East India Company and Royal African Company; the Dutch West India Company and Dutch East India Company; the Brandenburg Company; and the Guinea Company and Compagnie de Rouen , respectively. Origins of Beliefs The conquest of non-Europeans relied on two long-standing features of European thought: a belief in slavery and a belief...

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