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India

Subject: History

The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growth India's vast territory can be divided into three main regions ...

Hobson-Jobsonism

Hobson-Jobsonism   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
266 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...close as the available phonemes made it possible to come. Frustrated, the music critic ended up declaring his efforts unsuccessful. Cf. pronunciation (d) . The term got its name from Hobson-Jobson , an 1866 glossary of South Asian terms collected during the British rule of India, each term having been roughly transcribed into approximate English pronunciations. The book was written by Henry Yule and A.C. Burnellin and updated in 1903 . The title comes from an entry in the glossary denoting a ritual Muslim procession called Ya Hasan , Ya Husain ....

chintz

chintz   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2016

...; ✳chints . Chintz is the preferred spelling for fabric originally imported to Great Britain from India, featuring large patterns of flowers or birds. The original spelling, ✳chints , is now obsolete. Current ratio:...

sari

sari   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2016

...; ✳saree . Meaning “a long piece of cloth wrapped around one's body like a dress (esp. common in India),” the word is most commonly spelled sari throughout World English, though ✳saree is also sometimes found. Current ratio:...

deity

deity   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2016

.../ dee -i-tee/ is sometimes misspelled ✳diety —e.g.: “Historically, women from the Mithila region of northern India painted images of Hindu dieties [read deities ] on the walls to make their homes safe from the dangers of the outside world.” Elizabeth Barr , “Buying Opportunity,” Buffalo News , 2 Jan. 2004 , at G24. Language-Change Index deity misspelled ✳diety : Stage 1 Current ratio:...

nostrum

nostrum   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2016

...( / nos -trәm/ or / nohs -trәm/ ), meaning either “a quack medicine” or “a panacea,” forms the plural nostrums , not ✳nostra —e.g.: “If it wants to move into the global economy, [India] must give up many of the nostrums , such as the need to preserve small businesses, [that] are deeply enshrined in its social policy.” Peter Montagnon , “Old Protectionism Restricts Progress,” Fin. Times , 19 Nov. 1996 , at 4. See plurals (b) . Cf. rostrum...

Brahmin

Brahmin   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2016

... Brahman ) denotes (1) the highest caste or a member of that caste in classical Indian society; or (2) a member of upper-class New England society. Brahmin , the older spelling, is preferred <a Brahmin holy man> <a Boston Brahmin> . The popular breed of cattle originating in India are Brahman or Brahma cattle. But in reference to a specific sex, the males are almost always Brahma bulls , whereas the females may be Brahma or Brahman cows...

bungee

bungee   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2016

...popular in the 1980s, bungee became twice as common in every use <bungee cords> <bungee ropes> as ✳bungy , and it is now 20 times as common. It's the only accepted spelling for bungee jumping . The now-rare spelling bungie was the 19th-century name for rubber from India and products made from...

vitiate

vitiate   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
232 words

... [read lessen ] the number of people who actually leave welfare rolls.” “The Welfare Wagon,” Orange County Register , 7 Aug. 1997 , at B8. Still others think it means “to aggravate, exacerbate”—e.g.: “In India, religious conflict further vitiates [read aggravates ] the problem.” Joydeep Bhattacharya , “Just Changing the Guard Can't Save India from Asphyxiation,” L.A. Times , 12 Feb. 1991 , at B7. See obviate & slipshod extension . Language-Change Index 1. vitiate misused for lessen : Stage 1 2. vitiate misused for aggravate : Stage...

sola topi

sola topi   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
236 words

...topi (= a pith helmet, originating in India, made from the sola plant) is sometimes misspelled ✳solar topi (and has been since the 19th century)—e.g.: • “But she kept the English cricketing cap and the solar topi [read sola topi ].” Joan Bridgman , “Mad Dogs, Englishwomen and Nureyev,” Contemp. Rev . , 1 Apr. 1995 , at 213. • “The other common headgear, popular particularly among officers and commissars, was the casque colonial or solar topi [read sola topi ], made of cork or pressed fibre covered with cloth.” Martin Windrow , The Last Valley ...

adherence

adherence   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
168 words

....) Occasionally adhesion appears wrongly for adherence —e.g.: • “The strong adhesion [read adherence ] to technocratic rules would block self-initiative and encourage resignation.” M.K. Welge , “A Comparison of Managerial Structures in German Subsidiaries in France, India, and the United States,” Mgmt. Int'l Rev . , Jan. 1994 , at 33. • “Certainly they vaunted their adhesion [read adherence ] to the belief in the ‘great blessings . . . .’” David S. Forsyth , “Scots and the Union,” Herald (Glasgow), 23 Sept. 1995 , at 19. Language-Change...

never expected

never expected   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
161 words

...expected to be told to resign by 3 p.m. or face dismissal. He never expected to be confronted by his children in tears. And, most important, he never expected the administration to cut itself off from him.” Swapan Dasgupta & Farzand Ahmed , “The Education of Rabri Devi,” India Today , 11 Aug. 1997 , at...

gypsy

gypsy   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
154 words

.... In literal senses, denoting members of the tribes that migrated from northern India to Europe in the 14th or 15th century as well as their language, Gypsy is capitalized. (The term now preferred is Roma .) In figurative senses—as an adjective meaning “wanderer” or a verb meaning “to live like a Gypsy”—it is not. Nor is it capitalized in such phrases as gypsy cab and gypsy moth . The term comes from an erroneous belief that the people were from Egypt. Cf. Romany . ✳Gipsy , the standard spelling for much of the 19th century (and in BrE, for much of...

linguist

linguist   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
146 words

.... is the sound of a language.” Lincoln Barnett , The Treasure of Our Tongue 272 ( 1964 ). • “[M]ost literary critics are not certain if the linguisticians can tell them anything about what makes literary text valuable.” Vasant Anant Shahane , Focus on Forster's Passage to India 78 ( 1975...

bet > bet > bet

bet > bet > bet   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
153 words

.... Bet , not ✳betted , is the preferred (and far more frequent) past tense and past participle. Still, the form ✳betted occasionally appears, especially in BrE—e.g.: • “Afternoon race cards from minor meetings in Britain are betted [read bet ] on in Sri Lanka, Malaysia and India.” “Galloping Globe-Trotters,” Economist , 10 June 1995 , at 82. • “This could spell bad news for all those who betted [read bet ] on Ekran.” Lee Han Shih , “Ekran Chief Suffered Mild Stroke,” Bus. Times , 1 Oct. 1996 , at 1. • “Oil prices recently touched the...

diffuse

diffuse   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
298 words

...Has Anything Changed?” Columbus Dispatch , 7 Apr. 2002 , at A1. • “With almost 1 million troops stationed on both sides of the India–Pakistan border and with Pakistan having recently test-fired another round of missiles, Deputy Secretary of State Richard Armitage and Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld were sent to the region for emergency exercises in diplomacy to try to diffuse [read defuse ] tensions.” “The India–Pakistan War Machine,” Wash. Times , 5 June 2002 , at A16. • “Now the three-person squad has a bomb suit, X-ray systems and other...

jodhpur

jodhpur   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
273 words

.../ jod -pәr/ is an eponym for the city of Jodhpur, India. The word (almost invariably used in the plural) refers to a type of flared-at-the-thigh pants used in English horse-riding. Through a kind of visual metathesis , the word is often mispronounced / jod -fәr/ . And believe it or not, this error became pervasive in the horse-riding industry in the mid-20th century. The mispronunciation sometimes results in the obvious misspelling—e.g.: “Wealthy suburbanites clad in fancy jodphurs [read jodhpurs ] and riding boots will replace overall-clad cowboys...

depositary

depositary   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
182 words

... is standard in reference to places. True, lawyers often refer to a depositary bank , and this phrase has become common in legal parlance. But depository has continued to be used consistently for places—e.g.: “Cragg recounted how the central depository for stocks in India was recently robbed at gunpoint.” Barry Strudwick & Chris Grant , “Investing Without Geographic Limits Leads Fund Manager to Odd Places,” Daily Record , 19 Sept. 1996 , at 7. Cf. repository . ✳Depositee , a needless variant of depositary , was popular for a time in the...

officious

officious   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
235 words

.... In Samuel Johnson 's day, officious had positive connotations (“eager to please”). Today, however, it means “meddlesome; interfering with what is not one's concern.” E.g.: “Over the years, the most officious and obnoxious customs officials I encountered were those in India.” Thomas Sowell , “On Busybodies, Young ‘Adults’ and Self-Respect,” Atlanta J.-Const . , 6 Sept. 1995 , at A10. In the context of diplomacy, the word has a strangely different sense: “having an extraneous relation to official matters or duties; having the character of a...

insidious

insidious   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

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Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
241 words

...subtly or secretly so as not to excite suspicion—e.g.: “Many Indians still fear that economic liberalization will bring with it cultural imperialism of a particularly insidious kind—that ‘Baywatch’ and burgers will supplant Bharatanatyam dances and bhelpuri.” Shashi Tharoor , “India Poised to Become an Economic Superpower,” Wash. Post , 10 Aug. 1997 , at C1. Invidious = offensive; repulsive; arousing ill will or resentment. This term is often applied to discrimination, as it has been for more than two centuries—e.g.: “The example familiar to us is...

it

it   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
631 words

...as if inequality will be an issue in the year 2000 elections. Maybe America will just learn to live with much higher levels of inequality. India does—and it is, after all, a democracy. But then again, maybe it won't.” Lester C. Thurow , “Inequalities in Wealth a Political, Not Economic Problem,” USA Today , 23 Nov. 1999 , at A19. (The problem there is that it refers, in the next-to-last sentence, to India . But in the final sentence, it refers to America , which occurs two sentences before. One solution would be to put the next-to-last sentence...

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