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India

Subject: History

The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growth India's vast territory can be divided into three main regions ...

India

India   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... The country is so named from its main river, the Indus, itself from Sanskrit sindhu , ‘river’. Related words are ‘Hindu’ (the religion and its adherents) and ‘Hindi’ (the language and its speakers). Hindustan is the stan or ‘country’ of the Hindus. See also hinduism . India paper A creamy coloured printing paper, originally made in China and Japan from vegetable fibre, and used for taking off the finest proofs of engraved plates. The India paper (or Oxford India paper) used for printing Bibles and high-class ‘thin paper’ and ‘pocket’ editions is a...

India

India   Quick reference

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Language reference, History of English
Length:
70 words

... In OE. India , Indea , but the present use dates from XVI (prob. immed. after Sp. or Pg.). — L. — Gr. India , f. Indós the river Indus — Pers. hind (cf. HINDU ). Hence Indian adj. and sb. XV; pert. to America and the West Indies XVII ( Indian rubber XVIII, the earlier form for India rubber XIX). Indies orig. India with the adjacent islands. XVI. pl. of † Indie , Indy (XVI–XVII) — L. India...

Passage to India, A

Passage to India, A   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Modern Phrase & Fable (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...to India, A . A novel ( 1924 ) by E.M. Forster ( 1879–1970 ) whose three parts represent respectively the Muslim, Western and Hindu approaches to truth, rationality and spirituality. Forster visited India in 1912–13 , when he saw the Barabar Hills, which became in his novel the Marabar Caves, where the fateful encounter takes place that is at the heart of the book. He returned to India for six months in 1921 , to act as secretary to the Maharaja of Dewas, after which he went back to writing the novel, which he had begun in 1913 . The title comes from...

Nawab

Nawab   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...(Hindi, from Arabic, plural of na’īb , ‘viceroy’) The title of a distinguished Muslim in Pakistan, and formerly also of a governor or nobleman in India (e.g. the Nawab of Pataudi). See also nabob...

Nizam

Nizam   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...(Arabic, ‘order’) The title of sovereignty of the ruler of the state of Hyderabad, India, from 1724 to 1948 . The word is a contraction of Arabic Nizam-al-mulk , literally ‘governor of the...

Nehru jacket

Nehru jacket   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...jacket A type of jacket without lapels that buttons down the front, popular in the 1960s. It was based on the jackets favoured by Jawaharlal Nehru ( 1889–1964 ), the first prime minister of independent India, and was promoted in modified form by the French couturier Pierre Cardin...

Literary place-names

Literary place-names   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... Laugharne, Carmarthenshire and/or New Quay, Ceredigion, Wales ( Dylan Thomas ) Lower Binfield: Henley, Oxfordshire ( George Orwell ) Lowton: Kirkby Lonsdale, Cumbria ( Charlotte Brontë ) Lymport: Portsmouth, Hampshire ( George Meredith ) Marabar Caves: Barabar Caves, India ( E.M. Forster ) Middlemarch: Coventry, West Midlands ( George Eliot ) Milton: Manchester, Greater Manchester ( Elizabeth Gaskell ) Minton: Moorgreen, Nottinghamshire ( D.H. Lawrence ) Monkshaven: Whitby, North Yorkshire ( Elizabeth Gaskell ) Moonfleet: Fleet, Dorset ( J....

North

North   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...rest of the UK. Wales is also sometimes seen as having a North–South Divide, between the poorer North and the more urbanized and prosperous South, which contains cities such as Cardiff, Swansea and Newport. Northwest Frontier, The In particular, the northwest frontier of British India and the province of that name, now part of pakistan . Because of the warlike nature of the local tribesmen and the Russian advance into central Asia, it gained a special importance from the later 19th century, and was a constant drain on men and money. Northwest Passage, The The...

Hindi

Hindi   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Hindi . An Indo-Aryan language, spoken by over 250m people in India and by Indians in Britain, Canada, fiji ; guyana , South Africa, surinam ; trinidad and tobago , the US, and elsewhere. Hindi is the official language of the Union of India, with English as associate official language, and one of India’s 22 scheduled languages according to the Indian Constitution. It is written in a modified form of the Devanagari script, and its literary tradition dates from medieval times. Hindi proper has three stylistic varieties: a Sanskritized variety used in...

Anglo-Indian

Anglo-Indian   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Anglo-Indian . 1. Now rare: relating to England or Britain, and India: Anglo-Indian ties . 2. Of English or British people and their activities in India during the Raj: Anglo-Indian words and phrases . 3. Of the community of Eurasians in India descended from European fathers and Indian mothers. The mother tongue of the Anglo-Indian community is English. In present-day India, an Anglo-Indian school is an English-medium private school associated with the community and a Christian denomination, but open to students of all backgrounds. Anglo-Indian...

Indianism

Indianism   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Indianism . An especially linguistic usage or custom peculiar to or common in India and IndE: isn’t it? as a generalized question tag ( You are liking it here, isn’t it? ); repeating a word for emphasis ( It was a small small box ; Put put ; Take take ). See -ism . ...

Urdu

Urdu   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...and grammar but a more heavily Persianized and Arabicized vocabulary. It is the national language of Pakistan and is its co-official language with English. In India, it is the state language of the state of Jammu and Kashmir, and associate state language of the state of Uttar Pradesh. It is spoken as a first language by c. 65m ( 2007 ) and as a second language by c. 100m people in India and Pakistan, and some thousands of people of Indo-Pakistani origin in Fiji, Guyana, South Africa, the UK, and the US. See bangladesh ; hindi ; hindi-urdu ; ...

Contact Variety

Contact Variety   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Contact Variety . In sociolinguistics , a variety of a language, as for example English, that results from contact with other languages usually in multilingual and multicultural contexts such as Africa and India. With the passage of time, the pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, and discourse of such a variety become stable, but in forms that are not necessarily amenable to the standards and assumptions about usage in traditional English-speaking countries. ...

Interlanguage

Interlanguage   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...communication, such as Esperanto , or used as a lingua franca in a particular region, such as Hausa and pidgin English in West Africa. 2. In linguistics , a language intermediate between two or more other languages, generally used as a trade jargon, such as hindlish in India and taglish /Mix-Mix in the Philippines. 3. In language teaching and applied linguistics, the transitional system of a learner of a foreign language at any stage between beginner and advanced. See artificial language ; code-mixing and code-switching ; language learning . ...

Link Language

Link Language   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Link Language . A semi-technical term for a language that allows communication between groups with no other common language: for example, hindi in India, swahili in East Africa. It may or may not be seen as neutral in relation to other languages used in a particular place. English serves as a link language in most of Africa and Asia: ‘English is needed as a link language between the Indian states, and between the union government and the states’ ( Nayantara Sahgal , South , Aug. 1985 ). Compare lingua franca . ...

South Asian English

South Asian English   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...South Asian English ( SAE ) . The English language as used in bangladesh , Bhutan, India, the maldives ; nepal , Pakistan, and sri lanka . The combined populations of these countries, projected as 1,400m in the year 2000 , constitute almost a quarter of the human race. English is their main link language, largely as a result of British commercial, colonial, and educational influence since the 17c. Only Nepal, Bhutan, and the Maldives remained outside the British Raj. All South Asian countries are linguistically and culturally diverse, with two...

Bangladesh

Bangladesh   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...by 98% of Bangladeshis and is the only official language, English is widely used as an additional language in higher education and the legal system, and various indigenous languages. Local links with English date from the 17c; from the 18c till 1947 , Bengal was part of British India. In 1947 , East Bengal became East Pakistan . In 1971 , the territory seceded from Pakistan during a short war and became independent. During the Pakistani period, Urdu was the national language, and English was the official second language (used for administration, higher...

Portuguese

Portuguese   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...as the official language of Brazil; in Africa, as the official language of Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, and Saõ Tomé and Príncipe; in Asia, as the official language of the Portuguese colony of Macao, near Hong Kong, and in ex-colonial territories such as Goa in India and East Timor in the Indian Ocean. It is also spoken by immigrant communities in Canada, France, the US, and elsewhere, and has given rise to or influenced pidgins and creoles in many parts of the world. Like Spanish, it was influenced by arabic during the centuries of...

Nepal

Nepal   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Nepal was never part of the British Empire. English in Nepal is unique in that it was introduced neither by colonization nor by missionaries. Until 1950 , Nepal was a closed society ruled by hereditary prime ministers, but a tradition of English instruction came primarily from India, in whose universities most Nepalese teachers were educated. Since the 1960s, Nepal has had an open-door policy and English has become a major language of travel, tourism, and regional communication. In 1951 , as part of a process of democratization, use of English in the media...

Hindi-Urdu

Hindi-Urdu   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...grammar, and vocabulary, but differ in their script, Hindi being written in Devanagari, Urdu in Perso-Arabic. They differ largely because of politics and religion in the Indian subcontinent: Hindi generally favoured by Hindus, Urdu by Muslims. Hindi is the official language of India, Urdu the national language of Pakistan. Both have been extensively influenced by other languages, but whereas Hindi looks especially to SANSKRIT for its technical vocabulary and literary conventions, Urdu looks especially to Persian and ARABIC. Both have borrowed extensively from...

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