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India

Subject: History

The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growth India's vast territory can be divided into three main regions ...

India

India   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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2006

...by W. G. McIvor in 1847 , and from 1861 played a major role in the introduction of cinchona to India, and, rather more ecologically disastrously, the introduction of Australian eucalypts and acacias. Ooty had various outstations including Sim's Park at Coonoor, and is still one of the most attractive gardens in India, beautifully maintained, though devoid of plant labels and with little botanical interest beyond its magnificent trees. Bengal and north India After early experiments in Madras, the real focus of botanic garden activity shifted to the north;...

Humayun's Tomb

Humayun's Tomb   Reference library

Professor Attilio Petruccioli

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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2006

...Tomb Delhi, India. Built between 1560 and 1573 , this 12-hectare/30-acre garden, with a 360-m/1,080-ft quadrangle on one side, is a parterre in which the Persian motif of the chahar bagh (quadrant) is repeated in 36 smaller chahar baghs . The four central ones are occupied by the mausoleum rising on a high base. This is the first example of a tomb garden in India. The layout is composed of narrow water channels that intersect at right angles and are fed by wells outside the garden proper. The causeways are raised and pipes of clay irrigate the...

Kaempfer, Engelbert

Kaempfer, Engelbert (1651–1716)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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...and botanist. After studying medicine in Cracow (Poland) and Königsberg (Russian Kaliningrad) he accompanied a Swedish diplomat travelling through Russia and Persia (Iran). Kaempfer explored in the latter for several years. In 1688 he went to India and the following year to Java, becoming the Dutch East India company's chief surgeon at Nagasaki, Japan. Despite severe restrictions on travel, he was able to make two journeys to the Emperor at Edo (Tokyo). He observed the natural and cultivated flora, collecting where possible, and published his results in ...

Bernier, François

Bernier, François (1625–88)   Reference library

Patrick Taylor

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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...( 1625–88 ), French author, physician, and traveller whose vivid descriptions of what he saw in India and Kashmir in the 17th century contain precious early accounts of gardens. They were published in 1699 as Voyages contenant la description des états du Grand Mogol (Travels Containing a Description of the Estates of the Great Moghul). He saw the notable gardens of Kashmir— Achabal , Shalamar Bagh , and Vernag—and the Red Fort and Taj Mahal in India. He saw Kashmir as ‘a fertile and highly cultivated garden … meadows and vineyards, fields of rice,...

Anguri Bagh

Anguri Bagh   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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...with a lattice-work of emeralds and rubies, representing vine leaves as they turn from green to red, from which the name of the garden probably derives. Professor Attilio Petruccioli S. Crowe and S. Haywood , The Gardens of Mughul India (1972). E. B. Moynihan (ed.), Paradise as a Garden in Persia and Mughal India ...

New Delhi

New Delhi   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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...Delhi India. At the Delhi Durbar of 1911 it was announced that the seat of government of British India was to be transferred from Calcutta to Delhi. Edwin Lutyens and Herbert Baker ( 1862–1946 ) designed the complex of buildings, now known as New Delhi, in a style that incorporated both Western and Indian features. The Rajpath—the 3-km/1.8-mile ceremonial approach flanked by reflecting canals and lines of ashoka trees—and the garden to the west of the viceroy's house, laid out in 1917 , were inspired by the geometry of the traditional Mughal garden....

I'tima-ud-Daula

I'tima-ud-Daula   Reference library

Professor Attilio Petruccioli

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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...and is a jewel of bichromatic inlaid stone, in which the motifs of the vine, flowers, and plants (including the famous cypress with climbing flowers) predominate. Professor Attilio Petruccioli S. Crowe and S. Haywood , The Gardens of Mughul India (1972). E. B. Moynihan , Paradise as a Garden in Persia and Mughal India (1979). C. M. Villiers Stuart . Gardens of the Great Mughals ...

Chasma Shahi

Chasma Shahi   Reference library

Professor Attilio Petruccioli

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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...to the architecture and hydraulic works. The flower garden, mainly of lilacs, is noteworthy, and has fruit trees on the lower terrace near the entrance. Professor Attilio Petruccioli S. Crowe and S. Haywood , The Gardens of Mughul India (1972). E. B. Moynihan (ed.), Paradise as a Garden in Persia and Mughal India (1979). C. M. Villiers Stuart , Gardens of the Great Mughals ...

Wallich, Nathaniel

Wallich, Nathaniel (1786–1854)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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...1786–1854 ), Danish botanist and physician born in Copenhagen. Wallich was an Anglophile and spent time in England, coming to the notice of Sir Joseph Banks . In 1807 he joined the Danish East India Company as surgeon at Serampore. Six years later it was transferred to the British, and Wallich, on Banks's recommendation, was appointed superintendent of the East India Company's Calcutta Botanic Garden , a post he held for 26 years. Wallich botanized in the East Indies, the Himalayas, Nepal, and Burma, often using native collectors, sending vast numbers of...

Lotus Garden

Lotus Garden   Reference library

Patrick Taylor

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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...Garden Dholpur, Rajasthan, India. A garden made by Bābur which was forgotten for 400 years before it was identified by Elizabeth Moynihan and described in her book Paradise as a Garden in Persia and Mughal India ( 1979 ). Bābur came here in 1527 , admired an outcrop of sandstone, had a pavilion made of it, and laid out a garden. He described the making of the pavilion, which was carved out of the stone, and the garden as we may read in Annette S. Beveridge's translation of his memoirs, The Babur-Nama in English ( 1969 ). Bābur described the levelling...

Thunberg, Carl Peter

Thunberg, Carl Peter (1743–1828)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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...Carl Peter ( 1743–1828 ), Swedish botanist who was taught by Linnaeus at Uppsala University and joined the Dutch East India Company in 1770 , going to South Africa to learn the language, where with Francis Masson he studied the flora, earning for himself the title ‘Father of South African Botany’. In 1775 he travelled to Japan where, despite restrictions, he botanized, obtaining Lilium japonicum and Chaenomeles japonica . Returning to Uppsala in 1779 he wrote Flora Japonica ( 1784 ) and became professor of medicine and botany at the...

Machchi Bhawan

Machchi Bhawan   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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...Bhawan (Fish Square), Agra Fort, India, was once one of the two major Mughal gardens of the fort at Agra. Named after its tanks of sacred fish, it was richly planted, and its fountains and channels repeated the pleasures of running water which Niccolao Manucci described. In the 18th century, however, it was pillaged by the Jats, who removed much of the marble work to the palace of Deeg at Bharatpur. Later, during the administration of Lord William Bentinck, the remaining marble and mosaic work was sold, and no trace of the garden now remains, other than...

Saharanpur Botanic Garden

Saharanpur Botanic Garden   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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...Botanic Garden Uttar Pradesh, India. Saharanpur is in the foothills of the Siwalik Hills, at about 300 m/1,000 ft in the Doab plain between the rivers Ganges and Yamuna. The botanic garden was adapted from a 16-hectare/40-acre garden, the Farahat-baksh, which had been laid out in the mid 18th century by Intizam ud Dowlah . This was taken over by the East India Company, which appointed George Govan, a Scottish surgeon, as its first superintendent in 1819 . Govan thought that the climate might allow the growth of temperate fruit and vegetables, and...

Taj Mahal

Taj Mahal   Reference library

Professor Attilio Petruccioli

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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...trees in the parterres. The four palms ( supari ) noted by Villiers Stuart at the beginning of the century at the sides of the central basin have been removed. Professor Attilio Petruccioli S. Crowe and S. Haywood , The Gardens of Mughul India (1972). E. B. Moynihan (ed.), Paradise as a Garden in Persia and Mughal India (1979). C. M. Villiers Stuart , Gardens of the Great Mughals ...

Calcutta Botanic Garden

Calcutta Botanic Garden   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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...the Honourable East India Company and nurtured it as the Royal Botanic Garden Calcutta. Colonel Robert Kyd (military secretary to the Bengal government) founded the garden in 1786 on a virgin site of about 20 hectares/50 acres on the right bank of the Hooghly river at Sibpur near Calcutta. Despite periodic flooding (and susceptibility to cyclones), it remained on this site, eventually extending to over 121 hectares/300 acres. The initial aim was to grow economic plants to help overcome famines, but under the patronage of the East India Company it rapidly...

Nishat Bagh

Nishat Bagh   Reference library

Professor Attilio Petruccioli

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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...in the women's garden ( zenana ). Two fine octagonal three-storey gazebos at either end of the zenana 's retaining wall give a panoramic view of the lake and the rice paddies on the opposite slope. Professor Attilio Petruccioli S. Crowe and S. Haywood , The Gardens of Mughul India ...

Bauer, Walter

Bauer, Walter (1912–94)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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....1780 , the Botanic Gardens in Uppsala from a plan by Carl Hårlemann , and also gardens at Forsmarks Bruk and Leufsta Bruk, both in Uppland. Following a period with the Stockholm parks department, he started his own practice in 1946 , undertaking work in the Middle East and India as well as in Denmark. He wrote widely in the professional press and taught at the technical high schools in Helsinki and Stockholm, and the Art Academy in Stockholm. In 1981 he collaborated in the exhibition Fredrik Magnus Piper and the Romantic Park , and had an exhibition of...

Chahar Chenar Island

Chahar Chenar Island   Reference library

Professor Attilio Petruccioli

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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...stocks, marigolds, and grapes. Today there are only four, more recent pavilions, though it is still a place of incomparable beauty from which one may contemplate the lake and surrounding mountains. Professor Attilio Petruccioli S. Crowe and S. Haywood , The Gardens of Mughul India ...

Fortune, Robert

Fortune, Robert (1812–80)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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...was selected on the society's behalf to journey to China collecting plants. For three years from 1845 he visited the treaty ports along the coast purchasing material from gardens and nurseries. Subsequently he undertook two further expeditions on behalf of the Honourable East India Company collecting seed and tea plants which, with the help of the newly invented Wardian Case , helped lay the foundation of the Indian tea industry. His fourth and last journey ( 1860–2 ) was mainly to Japan where he collected among others Cryptomeria japonica and Dicentra...

Siebold, Philipp Franz von

Siebold, Philipp Franz von (1796–1866)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

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...Philipp Franz von ( 1796–1866 ), German doctor and plant collector. Siebold was physician to the Dutch East India Company in 1826 stationed at Deshima, the tiny walled island in Nagasaki Harbour, Japan. Foreigners' movements were restricted, but as an eye surgeon specializing in cataracts Siebold was able to travel, which allowed him to collect plants and seeds, propagating them on the island. Siebold acquired maps during his travels, and having spent a year in prison was expelled in 1830 for espionage. However he took his collection of plants...

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