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India

Subject: History

The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growth India's vast territory can be divided into three main regions ...

India

India   Reference library

A. Mathias Mundadan

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,525 words

...reached India in the first century as a result of the preachings of St Thomas the Apostle. The fruits of the Medieval Western Latin Mission, which culminated in the establishment of a bishopric at Kollam (Quilon) in 1329 , did not survive. It is the Portuguese who laid the foundation for the present Latin Christianity * in India in the sixteenth century. Other missionaries built on this foundation. The Protestant form of Christianity had its debut in India with the Lutheran establishment at Tranquebar ( 1706 ). The ancient Christians of India, the St...

India

India   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
7,507 words
Illustration(s):
3

...of “Indian Muslim.” At the same time, the Muslims of independent India have neither participated in “Islamist” or militant movements, nor have they organized any national-level Muslim political party. They have supported a range of political parties and participated in the regularly held elections that make the Republic of India the world's largest democracy. Muslims in India. Indian Muslims offer a Friday prayer at Delhi's Jama Masjid (Mosque). Photograph by Manish Swarup / AP Images India in the Eighteenth Century. The eighteenth century is increasingly...

India

India   Quick reference

A Dictionary of the Bible (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion
Length:
44 words

... Although only mentioned in the Bible in the book of Esther (1: 1; 8: 9), there was regular trade between India and the countries of the Mediterranean. The Malabar Christian communities of SW India claim to have been founded by the apostle...

India

India   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Buddhism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Religion
Length:
892 words

... . Although Buddhism originated in India it now flourishes predominantly in other parts of Asia. Pockets of Buddhism have always existed in the northern extremities of the subcontinent in the Tibetan-influenced regions of Ladakh, Sikkim , and Bhutan . There has also been a limited revival of Buddhism in India in the 20th century, due partly to an influx of refugees from Tibet , and the conversion of the so-called ‘ Ambedkar Buddhists’ who became Buddhists in an attempt to improve their former low status as members of the untouchable caste . Leaving...

India

India   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
4,457 words

...worship is common in the whole of India. An ancient institution in India called “sacred groves,” perhaps of pre-Vedic origin, kept patches of original forest uncut. The Buddha was probably born in such a sacred grove. Many villages in India have sacred groves in which plants and animals receive absolute protection. But already in the 1880s, the inspector general of the forests in British India lamented the loss of sacred groves and this destruction has continued unabated since. However, there is also a tradition in India of defending trees and forests from...

India

India   Reference library

Barbara D. Metcalf

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,787 words

...Gandhi opposed Partition to the end. Many hoped that Partition would end communal violence. The Republic of India. In the horrific course of the Partition of British India, as many as 12 to 18 million people may have migrated; perhaps a million others died. The rulers of the various princely states, abandoned by Britain, were forced to make a choice of India or Pakistan. The Hindu rulers of Kashmir, adjoining both India and Pakistan, had notoriously discriminated against their Muslim majority population. While the maharaja vacillated, Pakistani...

India

India   Reference library

Asiya Alam

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Women

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,708 words

...biased personal laws—is perpetuating their structured disempowerment (Hasan and Menon, pp. 232–244). The story of Muslim women's activism in India is a checkered trajectory characterized by the dynamism of upper and middle class groups calling for “ sharif ” social reform during the phase of colonialism, followed by the painful disarray of agendas and ideologies brought upon by the division of the subcontinent into India and Pakistan. In recent decades, feminist struggles of Muslim women have targeted two enemies: the male patriarchal elite within the community...

Caritas India

Caritas India   Reference library

Varghese Mattamana

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...India Caritas India is a national organization for social concern and development of the Catholic Bishops’ Conference of India * (CBCI). Established in 1962 , Caritas India works through a network of 158 diocesan social service societies and more than 200 non-governmental secular organizations throughout India * to promote community-based sustainable development programmes for the eradication of poverty. The vision of Caritas India is the ‘formation of a just and sustaining social order, where gospel values of love, equality, and peace are nurtured...

Compassion India

Compassion India   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...work in India * began in 1968 . Currently, over 75,000 children are being cared for in more than 300 projects spread all over the country. Compassion's ministry also extends to Bangladesh * , and has two major centres based in Chennai * and in Kolkata * (east India). The major work of Compassion is India is carried out in partnership with Caruna Bal Vikas , while Shohanabhuti Bangladesh Trust facilitates the operations in Bangladesh. The South Asia office of Compassion is located in Bangalore. The three major thrusts of Compassion India are: the...

Northeast India

Northeast India   Reference library

O.L. Snaitang

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,763 words

...an intermediary body on socio-political issues both in the states and at the national level. It is also a major constituent body of the National Council of Churches in India * (NCCI). o.l. snaitang Muanthanga, P.C. (2002), Transforming Eastern India Region . O'Brien, D. , (ed.) (2005), The Penguin India Reference Yearbook 2005 , New Delhi: Penguin. The Seven Sisters of North East India: A Profile (2004), Guwahati: Northeastern Social Research Centre. Manorama Yearbook (1982), Kottayam: Manorama Publishing...

India(n)

India(n)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Hinduism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
101 words

...(n) A word derived from Persian, Greek, and Muslim renderings of the Sanskrit term for the Sindhu (subsequently known as the Indus ), designating the land surrounding, and to the east of that river. It is now used as a name for the modern Republic of India, although the official name for the latter is Bhārata , ‘[the land of] the descendants of Bharata ’. As both noun and adjective (e.g. ‘Indian religions’) the term is frequently used by historians and others to encompass the ‘Indian subcontinent’ before Partition ( 1947 )—i.e. to include modern...

Operation Mobilization India

Operation Mobilization India   Reference library

Joseph D'souza

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...a large portion of OM India's work focuses on transforming India's Dalit community by imparting primary education to them. Over a span of more than forty years, thousands of Indian men and women have received training through OM India. Today, they can be found in all walks of life. Many have returned to secular employment, while over 20 per cent are engaged in full-time Christian ministry. The Operation Mobilization India is known nationwide for the excellent training it imparts to young Indian Christians, the unity it promotes among India's denominations, and...

India Bible Literature

India Bible Literature   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...of illiteracy in India * . Literacy India Trust conducts programmes in eighteen states of India and in Myanmar, Nepal, and Bhutan. In addition to learning to read and write, learners are taught simple arithmetic, ways to generate income, the importance of saving money, basic health and hygiene, and also, awareness about HIV/AIDS, governmental programmes designed for the upliftment of the poor, and other public services such as post office. In its programmes, LIT associates with various churches and social organizations. Literacy India Trust reaches out to...

India Missions Association

India Missions Association   Reference library

K. Rajendran

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

... Missions Association Around the 1950s, most of the European colonized nations became independent and slowly missed the traditional Protestant Western missionary services. Thus, the church in India had to develop her own indigenous leadership. In this scenario, in 1977 , six Indian missions assembled to form the India Missions Association (IMA) in a meeting called by the Evangelical Fellowship of India * (EFI) at Devlalai, Maharashtra * . The India Missions Association was formed for facilitating mutual help, cooperation, and corporate expression of...

Baptists in India

Baptists in India   Reference library

Roger E. Hedlund

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...participate in the Evangelical Fellowship of India (EFI) * . Most of them are part of the Baptist World Alliance, and some remain scrupulously independent. Sections of Baptists in eastern India and north India participated in church union negotiations leading to the formation of the Church of North India * (CNI), of which they became part. The Baptist denominations in northeast India are active in the Northeast India Council of Churches. roger e. hedlund Baptist World Alliance (1997), Yearbook of the Baptist World Alliance , Washington, DC: Baptist...

Armenians in India

Armenians in India   Reference library

A. Mathias Mundadan

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...some eminent Armenian merchants. At present, the number of Armenians in India is nominal. They are in communion with the Syrian Orthodox Church of India. a. mathias mundadan Hambye, E.R. (1972), ‘The Armenian Christians in India’ in Christianity in India , 303–5. Kaloustian, S. (1957), ‘The Armenian Colony in India’ in Eastern Churches Quarterly , 7. Moffet, S.H. (2005), History of Christianity in Asia , Vol. II, Maryknoll: Orbis Books. Seth, M.J. (1937), Armenians in India ,...

World Vision India

World Vision India   Reference library

Sarojitha Arokiaraj

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...Vision India With more than fifty years of experience in India * , World Vision (WV) works in close to 140 districts around the country through development that is community-based, sustainable, and transformational, through emergency response and disaster mitigation, and through grassroots-based advocacy initiatives. In India, the WV work began in a small way in Calcutta in 1962 . World Vision India partners with the poor for promoting their development, working with the government and civil society to usher in a better and brighter future for India. Its key...

Lutherans in India

Lutherans in India   Reference library

Jacob G.J. Sundarsingh

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...Evangelical Lutheran Synod of India in Guntur. The formation of the All-India Lutheran Literature Society ( 1905 ), the All-India Lutheran Conference ( 1908 ), the Lutheran National Missionary Society ( 1916 ), an official monthly Gospel Witness ( 1926 ), the All-India Lutheran Youth Federation ( 1928 ), the Committee on Common Lutheran Liturgy ( 1930 ), and the War Emergency Committee ( 1939 ) were some of the attempts to unite Indian Lutheran churches. The formation of the Federation of Evangelical Lutheran Churches in India (FELCI) in 1926 became an...

Scripture Union, India

Scripture Union, India   Reference library

Peter S.C. Pothan

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...Union, India Scripture Union (SU) and the Children's Special Service Mission (CSSM) was founded in England by Josiah Spiers in 1867 , and has been working in India * since 1901 . R.T. Archibald brought it to India, and visited the English medium schools to hold missions. Rev. A. Quintin Carr , Rev. Cecil M. Johnston , Rev. Joe Mullins , and John Jacob followed him in this ministry. This has grown into a nationwide movement with over fifty staff members working all over the nation. Today most of the staff members are Indians, many of whom...

Tribes in India

Tribes in India   Reference library

Fanai Hrangkhuma

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...hrangkhuma Dube, S.C. (1977), Tribal Heritage of India, Vol. I: Ethnicity, Identity and Interaction , Delhi: Vikas. Hrangkhuma, F. (ed.) (2004), Tribes in Transition , Bangalore: SAIACS. —(ed.) (1998), Christianity in India: Search for Liberation and Identity , Delhi: ISPCK. —‘Christ and Tribal Culture’ in J. Kavunkal and F. Hrangkhuma (eds) (1994), Christ and Cultures , Bombay: St Pauls. Marak, K.C. (1996), ‘The Brokenness of the Tribals in India and Their Future’ in The Church in India: its Mission Tomorrow , Delhi: ISPCK. Ponraj, S.D. ...

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