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India

Subject: History

The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growth India's vast territory can be divided into three main regions ...

Mill, James

Mill, James (1773–1836)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
120 words

...). British writer and political economist , born near Forfar, Scotland, and educated for the ministry at Edinburgh. In 1802 he moved to London to start a literary career, editing and writing for various periodicals. He also worked for the East India Company after writing a History of British India ( 1818 ). Having written Elements of Political Economy ( 1821–2 ) he produced Analysis of the Phenomena of the Human Mind in 1829 and A Fragment on Mackintosh ( 1835 ). He was closely associated with Jeremy Bentham and was one of the founders of...

LAW, Thomas

LAW, Thomas (1756–1834)   Reference library

Cornelis de Waal

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Christian of Ewanrige in Cumberland. He was a student at Oxford before moving to India at the age of seventeen as “writer” for the East India Company located in Fort William, Calcutta. There he rose through the ranks of writer, factor, junior merchant, senior merchant, judge, collector/magistrate, and finally member of the review board. Having obtained considerable wealth, he returned to England in 1791 for health reasons together with three sons of an Indian mistress. In India he made a name for himself by increasing the tax revenues through lowering...

Lokāyatas

Lokāyatas   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Atheism

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
160 words

...asceticism. In recent times, the Lokāyatas/Carvakas have received attention as a non-Western, ancient example of non-theistic thought (versus the view that non-theism is a distinctively modern, Western phenomenon). They are sometimes cited by modern rationalist movements in India as a significant and symbolic example of the indigenous nature of non-theism (although there is no direct historical...

Burton, Richard Francis

Burton, Richard Francis (1821–90)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
561 words

...horse races. At 21 Burton joined the army of the East India Company and was posted to the Sindh, in north-western India (now Pakistan), where he lived with Muslims and learned several Eastern languages and dialects, including Iranian, Hindustani, and Arabic. During this time, Burton became proficient also in Marathi, Sindhi, Punjabi, Telugu, Pashto, and Multani. In his travels in Asia, Africa, and South America, he learned 25 languages, with dialects that brought the number to 40. After seven years in India working under the direction of the renowned Sir...

Indian Aesthetics

Indian Aesthetics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
10,326 words
Illustration(s):
1

...than rigid walls between them. Finally, much of the framing of artistic products and praxes in India has been accomplished by non-South Asians and South Asians familiar with European aesthetic theory during the colonial ( 1757–1947 ) and postindependence eras ( 1947 —present); these more recent frames have themselves become part of the ongoing conversation about art in India, even among native traditionalists. Although the various aesthetic conceptions of India bear detailed examination, the most effective way to understand how the aesthetic realms have come...

Zen

Zen   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
782 words

...when in this state. 1. History 2. What is Zen? 3. Zen tradition and practice 4. Zen and ordinary everyday life 1. History Buddhism is founded on the teachings of the Buddha, who, in India c. 500 bc , realized his true nature and attained liberation from illusion. Zen Buddhism emerged as a separate branch where Bodhidharma, the first Zen patriarch, left India in ad 520 and took his teaching to China, where it took root and flourished. In ad 1100 . Zen spread to Japan, where it had its greatest flowering and deeply influenced many aspects of...

STAUGHTON, William

STAUGHTON, William (1770–1829)   Reference library

John R. Shook

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...this period Staughton also sustained his scholarly efforts beyond composing powerful sermons. He published a translation of Edward Wettenhall ’s A Compendious System of Greek Grammar and an edition of The Works of Virgil , along with an account of The Baptist Mission in India . His theological school was successful and his Calvinist principles were sound (some of his sermons and many letters are excerpted in Lynd’s memoir). The general convention of Baptists began to envision a college and seminary located in a major city under his leadership. In ...

Comparative Aesthetics

Comparative Aesthetics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,045 words

...Classical Esthetic Categories in Contemporary Indian Literature. In The Literature of India: An Introduction . Chicago, 1974. Gnoli, Raniero , ed. The Aesthetic Experience according to Abhinavagupta . 2d rev. enl. ed. Varanasi, India, 1968. Hiriyanna, M. Art Experience . Mysore, India, 1954. Kane, P. V. History of Sanskrit Poetics . 3d rev. ed. Delhi, 1961. Masson, J. L. , and M. V. Patwardhan . Śāntarasa and Abhinavagupta's Philosophy of Aesthetics . Poona, India, 1969. Zimmer, Heinrich . The Art of Indian Asia: Its Mythology and Transformations ....

Indian ideas of the mind

Indian ideas of the mind   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,812 words

...used in India: Know the self as the chariot-owner (i.e. he who is carried, inactively, by it), the body as the chariot. Know awareness ( buddhi ) as the driver, the mind ( manas ) as the reins. The senses, they say, are the horses, sense-objects the path they range over. The self joined to mind and senses, wise men say, is the experiencer. He who is without understanding, whose mind is ever unharnessed, his senses are out of control, as bad horses are for a charioteer. ( Kaṭha Upaniṣad , i. 3–5) In the Bhagavad Gītā ( c. 3rd century bc ), India's most...

Islamic philosophy

Islamic philosophy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
868 words

...philosophy . A traditional occidental theme is that the thinkers of Islam were mere synthesizers of Greek and other traditions (such as those of India and Persia) and made no original contribution to human thought. This simplistic view originates with the assumption that such work as that of Avicenna was the totality of Islam's philosophy: which in turn is understandable when it is realized what a profound effect Avicenna had upon the Schoolmen. The importance of Avicenna's thought for the West cannot be overestimated. Both in its negative aspect, such...

psychosurgery

psychosurgery   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
995 words

...high. Furthermore he has argued that psychosurgery could be used as a means for controlling antisocial behaviour and the activities of political dissidents. While there may be too few skilled in stereotactic surgery to permit its extensive use for political and social reasons, in India and Japan operations on the amygdaloid nucleus of the brain have been performed to control ‘hyperactivity’ in children. Although there is no doubt that outbursts of unbridled violence can be caused by diseases of the limbic brain, there is very little evidence that psychosurgery...

Kahn, Louis Isadore

Kahn, Louis Isadore (1901)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,529 words
Illustration(s):
1

...importance of the wall (as a screen, independent of structure). Kahn acknowledged the importance of Le Corbusier in his work. He often stayed in Le Corbusier's Villa Sarabhai at Ahmadabad ( 1955 ), with its barrel vaults and screen walls, when he was supervising his own work in India. Kahn applied his “Room” concept on various scales, extending it to “Institutions” (groups of rooms clustered about a common idea or community) and to the city itself, where “Streets” functioned as urban rooms connecting communities and institutions. This implied the fragmentation...

Le Corbusier

Le Corbusier (1887)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,252 words

... and the Dadaist poet Paul Dermée , he founded the avant-garde journal L' esprit nouveau , of which twenty-eight issues appeared from 1920 to 1925 . While he pursued his work as an architect and urbanist—seventy buildings were constructed in Europe, the United States, and India, and many unbuilt projects were drawn—he was a painter (as well as a sculptor after 1947 ) and a polemicist, writing hundreds of articles and publishing more than sixty books. Le Corbusier never taught, but his buildings as well as his theoretical works received considerable...

Politics

Politics   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,149 words

...1960 s after decades of colonial rule. Although styles of European rule differed from country to country, they were invariably rooted in authoritarian systems of government. Unlike in India, for example, there were few serious attempts in Africa to develop political systems prior to independence that would be conducive to postcolonial democratization. This was because, unlike India, Africa was not thought by colonial rulers to be politically ready for self-rule. But after World War II, the weaknesses of most of the region’s colonial powers (including Britain,...

bilingualism

bilingualism   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,447 words

...experiencing substantial immigration or made up of disparate groups. It is estimated that peoples from more than 90 different language communities have emigrated to Israel since the 1930s. It is encountered in large countries also. In the Soviet Union, as in Iran, China, and India— countries comprising people of many different ethnic, linguistic, and religious backgrounds—a single ‘national’ language is inculcated as a unifying device, while the separate groups use their own languages for local communication. Even in a country where the languages share a...

Chinese ideas of the mind

Chinese ideas of the mind   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,144 words

...However, Wang Yangming claims that principle is the regularity of material force and that material force is the operation of principle. If we follow the latter view, then there is the danger that everything will be chaotic. (de Bary and Bloom 1979 ) Buddhism, spreading from India to China in the 2nd century ad onward, held a decidedly idealist position in declaring the visible universe an illusion: the world was nothing but mind, and the individual's mind was part of the universal mind. The Chinese Buddhists substituted xing ([subjective] nature) for ...

CRAWFORD, John

CRAWFORD, John (1746–1813)   Reference library

Richard J. Behles

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...and divinity, he also pursued philosophy, history, and natural history, the science which ultimately molded his professional thought and teaching. He subsequently went on to the University of Leyden, where he earned his MD. Crawford was appointed ship’s surgeon aboard the East India Company’s ship Marquis of Rockingham , making two voyages to Bombay and Bengal between 1772 and 1774 . In 1779 , he became Surgeon to the naval hospital on the island of Barbados. When the island suffered hurricane devastation in 1780 and all around him lay in rubble,...

Arab Aesthetics

Arab Aesthetics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
1,054 words
Illustration(s):
1

...treatment” and of the creative ability of the poet, which makes it a fundamental element of aesthetic discourse, as contrasted with literal or cognitive expression. arab aesthetics . Amr, Disguised as a Doctor, Treating Sorcerers in a Courtyard, page from a Hamza-nama series, India, Imperial Mughal style (Akbar period, 1562–1577), opaque watercolors and gold on cotton, sheet: 31 × 25 inches (78.8 × 63.5 cm), image: 26 3/4 × 20 5/8 inches (68 × 52.4 cm); Brooklyn Museum (Museum Collection Fund). (Photograph used by permission.) In addition to the linguistic...

Meroe

Meroe   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,290 words
Illustration(s):
1

...agriculture and a mixed farming system developed, which resulted in the cultivation of tropical millet, sorghum, and the rearing of cattle. Meroe was able to use its agricultural surplus to promote trade. The extensive use of the Red Sea for commerce with the Mediterranean world, India, and the Far East enabled Meroe to export its products, which included gold, ebony, leopard skins, ostrich feathers, and ivory. It would also lead to the exchange of ideas and facilitated the successful development of a Meroitic culture. A distinctive Meroitic Art and architecture...

Middle Passage

Middle Passage   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,125 words

...to the coast, where European enslavers selectively purchased and marked captives with hot irons to indicate their new owners. Bosman’s accounts include his witnessing six or seven hundred chained Africans being placed aboard slave vessels obviously owned by the Dutch West India Company. Though Dutch ships carried a large number of slaves to the Americas (apparently from 1607 through the eighteenth century), conditions on such ships were better, according to Bosman, than those of British, French, and Portuguese ships. James Barbot, an enslaver on the...

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