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Overview

India

Subject: History

The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growth India's vast territory can be divided into three main regions ...

India

India   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,518 words

... Geographically termed a subcontinent, India's area is one-third of Europe's but their populations are roughly equal. India's culture lives up to the implications of such comparisons, for four major religions (Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism) originated and exist within its territorial limits, while sizeable communities of three other religions (Islam, Christianity and Zoroastrianism) have made India their home. Eighteen constitutionally recognized languages are spoken, all with fully developed literatures, many of which date back to the twelfth...

India

India   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Theatre and Performance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
3,703 words

... Any attempt to encapsulate the prodigious diversities of the Indian subcontinent has to take into account its multilingualism, consisting of eighteen constitutionally recognized languages from at least four families of languages—Indo-European, Dravidian, Tibeto-Burman, Austro-Asiatic—and eight scripts. India also has numerous religions, including Buddhism, Hinduism, Jainism, and Sikhism, that originated in India, along with religions from outside the country like Christianity, Islam, and Zoroastrianism, which have been indigenized over centuries. Above all,...

India

India   Reference library

Ania Loomba

The Oxford Companion to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... . Shakespeare’s plays, on the stage as well as in the classroom, were to become a central feature of the English presence and its legacy in India. As the privileged core of colonial English education, they were used to bolster ideas of English superiority over the culture and literature of the ‘natives’. On the stage, Shakespeare was staple fare for amateur theatricals of the English resident in India as well as for Indian students of European-style colleges all over the country. Western-style public theatres were established in Calcutta, Bombay, and...

puppetry in India

puppetry in India   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Theatre and Performance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
937 words

...in India Allegedly the birthplace of puppet theatre , India has many diverse traditions and numerous regional variations. The earliest references to puppets are found in the works of the ancient Sanskrit grammarians Panini and Patanjali, as well as in the Hindu epic of the Mahabharata where the puppet Chitrangada is specifically named. The word sutradhara (the ‘holder of strings’), the narrator or director of Sanskrit drama, is closely associated with puppetry. Broadly, we can divide puppetry styles in India into four categories: string (...

street theatre in India

street theatre in India   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Theatre and Performance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
410 words

...area. Calcutta saw hundreds of street performances by radical groups. After giving up mainstream theatre, Badal Sircar experimented with open-air theatre and foregrounded the discontent of the rootless urban middle class. In north India , street theatre was pioneered by Jana Natya Manch (Janam, formed 1973 ) and in south India by Samudaya (formed 1975 , with many units all over Karnataka). Janam's first street play Machine ( 1978 ) is a classic of the genre . Janam logged about 6,500 performances of 55 street plays by June 2000 , and many of these have...

Urdu theatre in India

Urdu theatre in India   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Theatre and Performance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
482 words

...theatre in India Urdu is the sister language to Hindi , possessing the same grammar and syntax with elevated diction borrowed from Arabic and Persian instead of Sanskrit. Urdu emerged as a language of the stage in the nineteenth century, when it was sometimes termed Hindustani, helping to spread popular musical theatre throughout South and South-East Asia. In the twentieth century, it became a vehicle of modern drama primarily among urban north Indian Muslims. Urdu continued in a larger capacity, however, as the medium of Bombay ( Mumbai ) film , radio ...

India

India n   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Original Shakespearean Pronunciation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...India n m =, 'ɪndɪˌa sp India 7 ...

Urdu theatre in India

Urdu theatre in India  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Urdu is the sister language to Hindi, possessing the same grammar and syntax with elevated diction borrowed from Arabic and Persian instead of Sanskrit. Urdu emerged as a language of ...
Keeling, William

Keeling, William   Quick reference

An A-Z Guide to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...William Ostensibly Captain of the Dragon , an East India Company ship which in 1607 , along with Hector and Consent , journeyed to the East Indies. His journal tells of performances of Shakespeare's plays on the High Seas, off Sierra Leone: 5 September : ‘I sent the interpreter, according to his desire, aboard the Hector where he broke fast, and after came aboard me, where we gave the tragedy of Hamlet ’ 30 September : ‘ Captain Hawkins [of the Hector ] dined with me, where my companions acted King Richard the Second ’; 31 March 1608 :‘I...

Much Ado About Nothing

Much Ado About Nothing   Quick reference

An A-Z Guide to Shakespeare (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

..., Douglas Seale , at Stratford-upon-Avon in 1958 , in costumes of about 1851 , Franco Zeffirelli , at the Old Vic in 1965 in a farcical version set in late nineteenth-century Sicily, John Barton at Stratford-upon-Avon in 1976 in a setting of nineteenth-century British India with Judi Dench an unusually serious, and wholly credible, Beatrice, and Terry Hands , also at Stratford-upon-Avon, in 1982 . Susan Fleetwood and Roger Allam played Beatrice and Benedick in Bill Alexander 's production (Stratford, 1990 ), and Kenneth Branagh directed a...

Shankar, Uday

Shankar, Uday (8 Dec. 1900)   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
250 words

... Tandava Nrittya . His company performed 889 shows in seven years in 30 countries. Later dance-drama themes included the play of the gods, the freedom of India and the oppressions of industrialization. In India, in 1939 , he founded the Uday Shankar India Culture Centre at Almora, which became the inspiration for India's modern dancers and theatrical presentations (including Discovery of India ) by his disciples in the 1940s, and dance-drama productions by his students and brother, renowned sitarist Pandit Ravi Shankar . His film, Kalpana ...

Gopal, Ram

Gopal, Ram (20 Nov. 1912)   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
209 words

...Ram (b. Bangalore, India , 20 Nov. 1912 ) Dancer and choreographer . Trained in bharatanatyam dance by a traditional guru, Meenakshisundaram Pillai of Pandanallur village, and in kathakali dance-drama by guru Kunju Kurup at the Kerala Kalamandalam, he imbibed the classical movements and the dramatic narratives of India's performance repertoires. He was discovered by American ethnic dancer La Meri , whom he joined in a 1936 tour in India and east Asia, where they presented classical and creative dance-dramas with Indian themes in Burma,...

Milligan, Spike

Milligan, Spike (16 April 1918)   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
159 words

...Spike [ Terence Alan ] (b. Ahmednagar, India , 16 April 1918 ) Comedian and writer . Irish, born in India, Milligan has sustained his surrealist comedy through many radio and television series from The Goon Show on. By devising a form of humour which did not rely on narrative progression to a ‘punch-line’, Milligan precipitated a new style of comedy, taken up by Monty Python's Flying Circus and its many spin-offs. He could be said to be the founding father of contemporary television comedy. His play (with John Antrobus ) The Bed-Sitting...

Marshall, Norman

Marshall, Norman (16 Nov. 1901)   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
127 words

...Norman (b. Rawalpindi, India , 16 Nov. 1901 ; d. London , 7 Nov. 1980 ) Director and manager . In 1926 Marshall joined the Cambridge Festival Theatre , eventually becoming resident director, taking over for a season in 1932 . When, in 1934 , he was offered the lease on the ailing Gate Theatre in London, he took it, and over the following six years transformed its fortunes with plays by Čapek , O'Neill , Hellman , Glaspell and Toller , often financing them with hugely successful intimate revues . He later set up a production company...

Phillpotts, Eden

Phillpotts, Eden (4 Nov. 1862)   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
115 words

...Eden (b. Mt Aboo, India , 4 Nov. 1862 ; d. Broad Clyst, Devon , 29 Dec. 1960 ) Writer and playwright . He went to London at the age of 18, studied for the stage and then became a clerk in a fire insurance company for ten years, during which time he wrote in the evenings. He wrote upwards of 160 books, often using the pseudonym of Herrington Hext . His plays include The Secret Woman ( 1912 ), Bed Rock ( 1924 ) and Jane's Legacy ( 1925 ). Yellow Sands ( 1926 ) and The Good Old Days ( 1932 ), were co-written with his daughter Adelaide....

Tempest, Marie

Tempest, Marie (15 July 1864)   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
125 words

...and operetta in England, America and Canada. Her performance in 1900 as Nell Gwyn in English Nell marked her departure from musical works. From then on she worked in comedy on a national and international scale, touring America, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India and the Far East. Back in England during the 1920s she played in contemporary drama such as Coward 's Hay Fever ( 1925 ) and St John Ervine 's The First Mrs Fraser ( 1929 ). Tempest was created a dame in 1937 . Elaine Aston H. Bolitho , Marie Tempest ...

Tagore, Rabindranath

Tagore, Rabindranath (7 May 1861)   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
170 words

...Rabindranath (b. Calcutta , 7 May 1861 ; d. Calcutta , 7 Aug. 1941 ) Writer, director, choreographer, composer, actor ; the first non-European to win the Nobel Prize ( 1913 ) for his poetry. He is recognized as the most inspirational artistic and creative force in modern India . He wrote 61 plays in Bengali and translated some into English. His unique contribution was the development, after 1908 , of symbol-based dramatic forms drawing on Indian folk and classical traditions, culminating in stylized musical dance-dramas. As theorist and practitioner,...

Leigh, Vivien

Leigh, Vivien (5 Nov. 1913)   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
159 words

...Vivien [ Vivian Mary Hartley ] (b. Darjeeling, India , 5 Nov. 1913 ; d. London , 8 July 1967 ) Actress , first noticed in The Mask of Virtue ( 1935 ), an adaptation of a Sternheim play. At Elsinore ( 1937 ) she played Ophelia opposite Laurence Olivier , whom she married in 1940 and partnered as Juliet (New York, 1940 ), Cleopatra to his Shakespeare's Antony and Shaw 's Caesar (both 1951 , the latter having been filmed with her in 1946 at Shaw's suggestion) and Lavinia to his Titus Andronicus ( 1955 ). Other notable performances were in...

Neighborhood Playhouse

Neighborhood Playhouse   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
136 words

...Playhouse An amateur theatre from 1915 to 1920 in New York's Lower East Side, built by Alice and Irene Lewisohn ; when it turned professional it presented a mix of revues , serious modern drama from the likes of Shaw , Galsworthy and O'Neill , and folk plays from Japan, India, France and Celtic and Norse myth. It always had a social and educational dimension, and after it closed in 1927 it spawned the Neighborhood Playhouse School of Theater, opened in 1928 , and the Costume Institute of the Metropolitan Museum, opened in 1937 . The school of...

Page, Anthony

Page, Anthony (21 Sept. 1935)   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
139 words

...Anthony [ Frederick Montague ] (b. Bangalore, India , 21 Sept. 1935 ) Director . Page was educated in England, trained in New York and directed many plays at the Royal Court Theatre (artistic director, 1964–5 ). His work there was remarkable for its intelligence and emotional force and for powerful, idiosyncratic acting. Page directed Paul Scofield , Nicol Williamson and Jill Bennett in nineteenth-century classics ( Chekhov , Gogol , Ibsen ) and in plays by John Osborne (respectively The Hotel in Amsterdam , 1968 ; Inadmissible Evidence...

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