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Overview

India

Subject: History

The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growth India's vast territory can be divided into three main regions ...

India

India   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... The country is so named from its main river, the Indus, itself from Sanskrit sindhu , ‘river’. Related words are ‘Hindu’ (the religion and its adherents) and ‘Hindi’ (the language and its speakers). Hindustan is the stan or ‘country’ of the Hindus. See also hinduism . India paper A creamy coloured printing paper, originally made in China and Japan from vegetable fibre, and used for taking off the finest proofs of engraved plates. The India paper (or Oxford India paper) used for printing Bibles and high-class ‘thin paper’ and ‘pocket’ editions is a...

Passage to India, A

Passage to India, A   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Modern Phrase & Fable (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...to India, A . A novel ( 1924 ) by E.M. Forster ( 1879–1970 ) whose three parts represent respectively the Muslim, Western and Hindu approaches to truth, rationality and spirituality. Forster visited India in 1912–13 , when he saw the Barabar Hills, which became in his novel the Marabar Caves, where the fateful encounter takes place that is at the heart of the book. He returned to India for six months in 1921 , to act as secretary to the Maharaja of Dewas, after which he went back to writing the novel, which he had begun in 1913 . The title comes from...

Nawab

Nawab   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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Current Version:
2013

...(Hindi, from Arabic, plural of na’īb , ‘viceroy’) The title of a distinguished Muslim in Pakistan, and formerly also of a governor or nobleman in India (e.g. the Nawab of Pataudi). See also nabob...

Nizam

Nizam   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...(Arabic, ‘order’) The title of sovereignty of the ruler of the state of Hyderabad, India, from 1724 to 1948 . The word is a contraction of Arabic Nizam-al-mulk , literally ‘governor of the...

Nehru jacket

Nehru jacket   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...jacket A type of jacket without lapels that buttons down the front, popular in the 1960s. It was based on the jackets favoured by Jawaharlal Nehru ( 1889–1964 ), the first prime minister of independent India, and was promoted in modified form by the French couturier Pierre Cardin...

Literary place-names

Literary place-names   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... Laugharne, Carmarthenshire and/or New Quay, Ceredigion, Wales ( Dylan Thomas ) Lower Binfield: Henley, Oxfordshire ( George Orwell ) Lowton: Kirkby Lonsdale, Cumbria ( Charlotte Brontë ) Lymport: Portsmouth, Hampshire ( George Meredith ) Marabar Caves: Barabar Caves, India ( E.M. Forster ) Middlemarch: Coventry, West Midlands ( George Eliot ) Milton: Manchester, Greater Manchester ( Elizabeth Gaskell ) Minton: Moorgreen, Nottinghamshire ( D.H. Lawrence ) Monkshaven: Whitby, North Yorkshire ( Elizabeth Gaskell ) Moonfleet: Fleet, Dorset ( J....

North

North   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...rest of the UK. Wales is also sometimes seen as having a North–South Divide, between the poorer North and the more urbanized and prosperous South, which contains cities such as Cardiff, Swansea and Newport. Northwest Frontier, The In particular, the northwest frontier of British India and the province of that name, now part of pakistan . Because of the warlike nature of the local tribesmen and the Russian advance into central Asia, it gained a special importance from the later 19th century, and was a constant drain on men and money. Northwest Passage, The The...

mimicry

mimicry   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

... peoples simultaneously express their subservience to the more powerful and subvert that power by making mimicry seem like mockery. A contemporary form of this can be seen today in the way in which call centre jobs from Australia, the UK, US, and elsewhere are exported to India precisely because as a direct result of colonization there are operators there who can mimic English speakers from those countries. Further Reading: H. Bhabha The Location of Culture ...

mimicry

mimicry   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... peoples simultaneously express their subservience to the more powerful and subvert that power by making mimicry seem like mockery. A contemporary form of this can be seen today in the way in which call centre jobs from Australia, the UK, US, and elsewhere are exported to India precisely because as a direct result of colonization there are operators there who can mimic English speakers from those countries. Further Reading: H. Bhabha The Location of Culture ...

dependency theory

dependency theory   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...the right entrepreneurial spirit it will catch up with the First World. It argues instead that the impoverished state of the Third World is the result of deliberate policies on the part of First World nations, dating back to colonial times. Britain’s deliberate destruction of India’s nascent textiles industry and forced transformation of that country into an exporter of raw cotton and importer of cloth at the start of the Industrial Revolution is often held up as a textbook example of the way the Third World is in fact the creation of the First World. As ...

Spivak, Gayatri

Spivak, Gayatri (1942)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...Gayatri ( 1942 –) Indian -born postcolonial , post-structuralist , Marxist literary critic and theorist . The daughter of middle-class parents, she was born in Calcutta at a time when India was still part of the British Empire. Borrowing money, she moved to the US to attend graduate school at Cornell, where she did comparative literature because that was the only school to offer her a scholarship. She wrote her PhD on William Butler Yeats , under the direction of Paul de Man . Her first job was at the University of Iowa, which she started a full...

Spivak, Gayatri

Spivak, Gayatri (1942– )   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Gayatri ( 1942–  ) Indian -born postcolonial , post-structuralist , Marxist literary critic and theorist . The daughter of middle-class parents, she was born in Calcutta at a time when India was still part of the British Empire. Borrowing money, she moved to the US to attend graduate school at Cornell, where she did comparative literature because that was the only school to offer her a scholarship. She wrote her PhD on William Butler Yeats , under the direction of Paul de Man . Her first job was at the University of Iowa, which she started a...

subaltern

subaltern   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

... and over time it has included such scholars as Homi Bhabha , Gayatri Spivak , Partha Chatterjee , and Dipesh Chakrabarty . Its aim, following Gramsci's precepts, is to examine the formation of subaltern classes in a variety of settings in South East Asia, but principally India and its near neighbours, with the aim of providing a kind of counter-history, to address the imbalances of ‘official’ histories, which tend to focus exclusively on the affairs of the state and the ruling class. Spivak's famous essay ‘Can the Subaltern Speak?’ (incorporated into A...

decolonization

decolonization   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...well as divergent outcomes (relative prosperity and crushing poverty). Decolonization began in the immediate aftermath of World War II, in part because European powers like Britain and France were no longer capable of holding on to their empires, but also because (in the case of India at least) independence had been promised in return for assistance during the war. But as the Vietnam War demonstrates, the colonial empires were not always given up without a fight. And as often as not it led to bloody wars, sometimes with the colonial power, but just as...

dependency theory

dependency theory   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...the right entrepreneurial spirit it will catch up with the First World. It argues instead that the impoverished state of the Third World is the result of deliberate policies on the part of First World nations, dating back to colonial times. Britain's deliberate destruction of India's nascent textiles industry and forced transformation of that country into an exporter of raw cotton and importer of cloth at the start of the Industrial Revolution is often held up as a textbook example of the way the Third World is in fact the creation of the First World. As ...

Orientalism

Orientalism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...Traditionally, any form of scholarship or indeed fascination with the Orient, meaning the countries generally referred to today as the Middle East (but also encompassing the whole of North Africa, Turkey, Pakistan, and the northern tip of India). Edward Said 's book Orientalism: Western Conceptions of the Orient ( 1978 ) transformed the term from a relatively neutral, though obviously biased, name for a venerable field of study dating back several hundred years, into an indictment of bigotry and racism. Said's work emptied Orientalism of its...

Third World

Third World   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...and too demeaning. The argument against its use usually points out that countries in the First World have sections in them that are as poor as anywhere in the Third World (such as the garment district, or skid row, in downtown Los Angeles), and Third World countries like India have sections in them every bit as wealthy as First World cities (e.g. Mumbai). Further Reading: M. Denning Culture in the Age of Three Worlds ...

Third World

Third World   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...and too demeaning. The argument against its use usually points out that countries in the First World have sections in them that are as poor as anywhere in the Third World (such as the garment district, or skid row, in downtown Los Angeles), and Third World countries like India have sections in them every bit as wealthy as First World cities (e.g. Mumbai). Further Reading: M. Denning Culture in the Age of Three Worlds ...

decolonization

decolonization   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...well as divergent outcomes (relative prosperity and crushing poverty). Decolonization began in the immediate aftermath of World War II, in part because European powers like Britain and France were no longer capable of holding on to their empires, but also because (in the case of India at least) independence had been promised in return for assistance during the war. But as the Vietnam War demonstrates, the colonial empires were not always given up without a fight. And as often as not it led to bloody wars, sometimes with the colonial power, but just as...

Orientalism

Orientalism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... Traditionally, any form of scholarship or indeed fascination with the Orient, meaning the countries generally referred to today as the Middle East (but also encompassing the whole of North Africa, Turkey, Pakistan, and the northern tip of India). Edward Said ’s book Orientalism: Western Conceptions of the Orient ( 1978 ) transformed the term from a relatively neutral, though obviously biased, name for a venerable field of study dating back several hundred years, into an indictment of bigotry and racism. Said’s work emptied Orientalism of its...

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