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India

Subject: History

The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growth India's vast territory can be divided into three main regions ...

Passage to India, A

Passage to India, A   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...and Aziz years later, on the former's return to India, where the young doctor, now working in another part of the country, encounters his former friend and learns something which helps to mitigate the bitterness he has felt against the British as a result of the ‘Marabar Case’. The novel ends with his realization that he and Fielding can only truly be friends once India is free: ‘India shall be a nation! No foreigners of any sort! Hindu and Moslem and Sikh and all shall be one! Hurrah! Hurrah for India...

A Passage to India

A Passage to India  

A novel by E. M. Forster, published 1924.The story is told in three parts, I, Mosque, II, Caves, III, Temple, and concerns Aziz, a young Muslim doctor, whose friendliness and enthusiasm for the ...
Chaudhuri, Nirad C.

Chaudhuri, Nirad C. (1897– )   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...) constituted an idiosyncratic and penetrating survey of India's political development in the years up to 1921 . Equally a combination of autobiography and modern history, Thy Hand, Great Anarch! ( 1987 ) covers the years 1921 to 1952 . The Continent of Circe ( 1965 ) analyses India's social and cultural situation. His biographies Clive of India ( 1974 ) and Scholar Extraordinary ( 1974 ), a study of Friedrich Max Müller ( 1823–1900 ), sustain the theme of relations between Britain and India which runs through much of his writing. His other works...

Nahal, Chaman

Nahal, Chaman (1927– )   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...Chaman ( 1927–  ), Indian novelist , born in Sialkot, formerly in India and now in Pakistan, educated at the University of Delhi and the University of Nottingham. Since 1949 he has taught in a succession of universities in India; he became Professor of English at the University of Delhi in 1980 . My True Faces ( 1973 ), his first novel, was followed in 1975 by Azadi , a compelling narrative of the divisive effects of Partition in 1947 , which is widely regarded as his finest work. A trilogy, The Crown and the Loincloth ( 1981 ), The Salt of...

Markandaya, Kamala

Markandaya, Kamala (1923–2004)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...Kamala ( 1923–2004 ), British novelist , born and educated in India. Her first novel, Nectar in a Sieve ( 1954 ), was variously described as a rural tragedy, a portrait of the clash between tradition and change in modern India, and a convincing depiction of a deprived woman's life. As both anglophone and expatriate, Markandaya was criticized for her bourgeois rendition of a peasant woman's sensibility and her inaccurate representation of rural traditions and mores. In novels such as Some Inner Fury ( 1955 ) and Possession ( 1963 ), she...

Singh, Khushwant

Singh, Khushwant (1915– )   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...and editor, establishing a reputation as one of India's leading cultural commentators. His vast erudition and understanding of India's history, political systems, and literary heritage is reflected in his prose works which included a history of his own community, the Sikhs, published in 1963 . His novels, which are deeply rooted in the recent history and political situation of contemporary India, include Train to Pakistan ( 1954 ), one of the most compelling (quasi-documentary) accounts of the Partition of India in 1947 ; I Shall Not Hear the Nightingale ...

Peard, Frances Mary

Peard, Frances Mary (1835–1923)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Edwardian Fiction

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2005

...for adults, all drawing on her travels abroad, especially in India. Her fiction for adults includes The Rose Garden ( 1872 ), Donna Teresa ( 1899 ), and Number One and Number Two ( 1900 ). The Ring from Jaipur ( 1904 ) is rather more sober than its title, which suggests jewels and Far Eastern temples: an empty-headed Anglo-Indian wife tires of India and goes home to England, but eventually returns to her post and is reconciled with her husband. The theme—the harshness of conditions in India for women of a less than steely temperament—is comparable to...

Corbett, Jim

Corbett, Jim (1875–1955)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...in The Man-Eaters of Kumaon ( 1946 ), The Man-Eating Leopard of Rudraprayag ( 1948 ), and The Temple Tiger and More Man-Eaters of Kumaon ( 1954 ). In 1935 he established the first game sanctuary in India at Garhwal, which became Corbett National Park in 1957 . His other works include the substantially autobiographical My India ( 1952 ) and Jungle Lore ( 1953 ). Carpet Sahib ( 1986 ) is Martin Booth's biography of...

Das, Kamala

Das, Kamala (1934– )   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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... writer , born in Malabar, India. Her autobiographical My Story (India, 1976 ; UK, 1978 ) is a highly introspective and subjective account of the creation and development of a woman poet. It is interspersed with some of Das's best verse. Famous, even notorious, for her poetic articulation of female sexuality and illicit passions, Das is actually a skilled chronicler of everyday experience, both emotive and perceptive. Her word-paintings of urban life are illuminated with images of the flux and change she perceives in India's streets. Das's collections of...

Mehta, Ved

Mehta, Ved (1934– )   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...in 1975 he became an American citizen. Walking the Indian Streets ( 1960 ; revised edition 1971 ) describes his return to India, together with his compatriot Dom Moraes . Mehta is best known for his autobiographical memoirs which include Face to Face ( 1957 ), Daddyji ( 1972 ), Mamaji ( 1979 ), Vedi ( 1982 ), and The Ledge Between the Streams ( 1984 ); as well as combining acute descriptions of everyday life in India, and shrewd analysis of Indian society, the memoirs also reveal with great pathos and humour the courageous confrontations with...

Scott, Paul

Scott, Paul (1920–78)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...subsequently employ in The Raj Quartet . The novels set in India show a gradual broadening of Scott's canvas from wartime India to the entire history of the Anglo-Indian relationship. The Alien Sky ( 1953 ), The Mark of the Warrior ( 1958 ), and The Chinese Love Pavilion ( 1960 ) were followed by The Birds of Paradise ( 1962 ), which explores the mercurial nature of the past and suggests the genesis of Scott's later interest in multiple perspectives. In 1964 Scott returned to India, at the expense of Heinemann, his publishers, living with an...

Godden, Rumer

Godden, Rumer (1907–98)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...), British novelist , born in Sussex; she spent her childhood in India and from the age of 12 was educated in various English schools. She returned to India to start a dancing school, married, and spent the war years alone in Kashmir with her small children. The predominant themes in her novels are the lives of foreigners in Eastern settings, the inner thoughts of children, and religious life. Her first novel, Black Narcissus ( 1939 ), focused on an Anglican Sisterhood in India, and was later filmed; a later work, In This House of Brede ( 1969 ), is...

Diver, Maud

Diver, Maud (1867–1945)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Edwardian Fiction

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2005

...Thomas Diver ( 1860–1941 ). Born at Murree in north India, the daughter of an officer in the Indian army, she was brought up in India and Ceylon, although educated in England. She was a life-long friend of Kipling 's sister Trix Fleming . She left Ceylon for England on her marriage to Diver, who had risen from the ranks to become an officer in the Royal Warwickshire Regiment. Her first publication was the successful romantic novel Captain Desmond, V. C. ( 1907 ), which contrasts two Englishwomen in India in the 1880s, one selfish, one admirable. The Great...

Lewis, Alun

Lewis, Alun (1915–44)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...in army training camps in England. Ha! Ha! Among the Trumpets ( 1945 ), a posthumous collection of poetry with an introduction by Robert Graves , was followed by the selections from his correspondence in Letters from India ( 1946 ) and a further volume of stories entitled In the Green Tree ( 1948 ). The inhospitable landscapes of India and Burma and the fatalistic philosophies of their inhabitants strongly inform his later verse, in which love and death are prevailing themes. Ian Hamilton 's edition of his Selected Poetry and Prose appeared in 1966 ....

Byron, Robert

Byron, Robert (1905–41)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...found its most mature realization in Byzantine art and architecture. During the early 1930s he travelled widely in India, Persia, Tibet, Russia, and elsewhere. He was drowned while making his way to Meshed as a newspaper correspondent after the ship on which he was travelling was torpedoed. The Road to Oxiana ( 1937 ), his most celebrated work, investigates the origins of Islamic architecture in the course of a journey from Italy to India; the book, which retains the vivid immediacy of the journals from which it was prepared, combines erudition and...

Sahgal, Nayantara

Sahgal, Nayantara (1927– )   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...Nayantara ( 1927–  ), Indian memoirist , novelist , and political analyst , born in Allahabad, India, educated there and at Wellesley College, Massachusetts. The fascinating events that formed her intellect are chronicled in two autobiographical works, Prison and Chocolate Cake ( 1954 ) and From Fear Set Free ( 1963 ). Sahgal grew up in the heart of India's struggle for independence; her mother was Vijayalaxmi Pandit and her uncle the renowned Jawaharlal Nehru , and her childhood experiences were of political struggle, ideological debate, and...

Broken Road, The

Broken Road, The (1907)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Edwardian Fiction

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2005

...with some understanding of the hypocrisy of the British. Shere Ali, son of the ruler of Chiltistan on India's north-eastern frontier, is sent to Eton and Oxford for his education. There he becomes best friends with Dick Linforth, son and grandson of men who have given their lives to building a road opening up these north-eastern territories. As young men, both Linforth and Shere Ali fall in love with the beautiful widow Violet Oliver. Shere Ali returns to India to find himself now part of an inferior race and, in particular, is made to realize the impossibility...

Derelict Empire, A

Derelict Empire, A (1912)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Edwardian Fiction

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Current Version:
2005

...pensions. One consequence is rebellion in India. Captain Maurice Wardlaw, of the Fortieth Punjab Lancers, is appointed commander of the British army in India, the only force capable of holding the country together. He takes over the chaotic National Assembly, and foils assassinations and invasions. Kaiser Wilhelm, impressed by his resoluteness, offers protection from Russia and Japan in return for favourable trade terms. Wardlaw's loyalty is strained to the limit, but he agrees; it is the only way to save India. The novel is an interesting illustration of...

Duncan, Sara Jeannette

Duncan, Sara Jeannette (1861–1922)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Edwardian Fiction

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Current Version:
2005

...Departure ( 1890 ), which had sold 16,000 in the US alone by 1903 and made her world-famous. She married an English museum official in India; he later resigned and became editor of the Indian Daily News , and later still a freelance journalist; they lived in India, in Simla and elsewhere, for twenty-five years before returning to England, where she died. Forster visited her in Simla, and when in A Passage to India ( 1924 ) he has an Anglo-Indian lady talk Hindustani in the imperative because she only knows how to address servants he repeats a point...

Blaise, Clark

Blaise, Clark (1940– )   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Twentieth-Century Literature in English

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...considered to represent his central achievement. I Had A Father: A Post-Modern Autobiography appeared in 1993 . With his wife Bharati Mukerjee , Blaise is the co-author of Days and Nights in Calcutta ( 1977 ), a journal of their year in India, and The Sorrow and the Terror: the Haunting Legacy of the Air India Tragedy ( 1987...

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