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Overview

India

Subject: History

The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growth India's vast territory can be divided into three main regions ...

Candace

Candace (1)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...(1) , Candace, a queen of India, who lured Alexander into her power, and (in the romances) became his mistress. In Against Women Unconstant (16) she is linked with Delilah ( Dalyda ) and Criseyde as an example of...

Thomas of Ynde, Seint

Thomas of Ynde, Seint   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...of Ynde, Seint , St Thomas , the doubting apostle who insisted on touching the wounds of the risen Christ (John 20:25–8). The legend that he spread the word of God in India was widely accepted from the early Middle Ages. Travellers found Nestorian Christians in India, and (at various places) the apostle's tomb. Marco Polo recounts some vivid legends connected with it; Mandeville says that the relic of his arm and hand decides between true and false causes. Chaucer's most pointed allusion is in The Summoner's Tale (III.1978–80), where the friar refers...

Inde

Inde   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

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Current Version:
2005

...Its celebrated gems appear on ‘the broche of Thebes’, ‘ful of rubies and of stones of Ynde’ ( Mars 246). The blue dye obtained from India, now called ‘indigo’, had given rise to the adj. inde (‘(indigo) blue’, Rom 67). Its rulers are figures of romance. In The Squire's Tale the strange knight is a messenger from ‘the kyng of Arabe and of Inde’ (V.110)—though this is probably ‘India Minor’ or ‘Middle India’ i.e. southern Arabia. In The Knight's Tale ‘the grete Emetrius, the kynge of Inde’ makes a spectacular appearance (I.2155–89), dressed in...

Arabe

Arabe   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

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Current Version:
2005

...in The Book of the Duchess 982 as the home of the phoenix, and in The Squire's Tale (V.110) the stranger knight announces that the steed of brass is a present from his liege lord, ‘the kyng of Arabe and of Inde ’. This land seems to be what was sometimes called ‘Middle India’, i.e. southern Arabia or...

Asye

Asye (1)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...half part of the world’ according to Bartholomew (and appears thus on medieval maps ( see Mappemounde and Map 1 ), as the top half of a circle which has Jerusalem in the centre). Beyond the Holy Land, the maps will show such places as Babylon ( Babiloigne ) on the Euphrates, India ( Inde ) with the river Ganges, Ceylon, and in the extreme East the Garden of Eden or Earthly Paradise, traditionally placed on a mountain, with its four rivers running down. Exotic animals and creatures figure prominently—unicorns, elephants, Bactrian camels with two humps,...

‘Mandeville, Sir John’

‘Mandeville, Sir John’   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

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Current Version:
2005

...to have been more of an ‘armchair traveller’, since much of the book is compiled from earlier sources. The first part, based on pilgrim guides, describes the way to the Holy Land, and the holy places there. The second part continues beyond Jerusalem to the more exotic regions of India ( Inde ) and Asia ( Asye (1) ). (See Map 1.) This uses the accounts of earlier travellers, the friars sent on embassies to the Great Khan , John of Plano Carpini , William of Rubruck , and Odoric of Pordenone , for the road to Cathay and realms of the great Khan. Of these...

Alisandre Macedo

Alisandre Macedo   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

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Current Version:
2005

...( Macedoyne ), son of Philip II and Olympias, was educated by Aristotle , and soon showed himself to be a brilliant military commander. He invaded Asia, conquering Persia, Syria, and Egypt. His campaigns took him as far as what is now Samarkand and Afghanistan, and finally India; he had hoped to reach the Ganges, and what he thought to be the end of the world, but his men refused. After reaching the delta of the Indus in 325 , he set off homewards, but died of fever in Babylon ( Babiloigne ). The fame of his remarkable achievements lived on and grew...

Squire's Tale, The

Squire's Tale, The   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

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Current Version:
2005

.... To celebrate twenty years of his reign Cambyuskan holds a great birthday feast. It is interrupted by entry of a knight riding on a steed of brass, with a mirror in his hand, a gold ring on his thumb and a sword by his side. He delivers his message: the king of Arabia and India sends you this steed in honour of the feast. It can carry you anywhere you wish in the space of one natural day. The mirror and the ring are for Canacee: the mirror can see any adversity about to occur, and in it a lady can see treachery of a lover; the ring gives knowledge of...

technology

technology   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...of many of these activities. Particularly important economically was something quite different, namely the agricultural revolution that followed the rise of Islam. The key to this was the introduction of many new crops—rice, hard wheat, citrus fruit, and many vegetables—from India and Persia. These were disseminated to places as far away as North Africa and the Iberian peninsula. With this revolution came much attention to techniques of cookery, and to irrigation, although there the ancient devices were still usually employed—the Archimedean screw and the...

Knight's Tale, The

Knight's Tale, The   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...are the figures of the gods, their aspects and qualities, and their ‘children’ ( see mythography ). As the day approaches knights desirous of honour assemble, and preparations begin. Palamon is accompanied by Lycurgus ( Lygurge ) the king of Thrace, Arcite by Emetreus , king of India ( Inde ), and their companies (1881–2208). Before daybreak, at the planetary hour of Venus, Palamon arises and goes to her temple to pray, not for victory in battle, but to win his love Emily. If she will not grant this, he would wish to be slain. The statue makes a sign, which he...

Candace

Candace  

Candace, a queen of India, who lured Alexander into her power, and (in the romances) became his mistress. In Against Women Unconstant (16) she is linked with Delilah (Dalyda) and Criseyde as an ...
Emetreus

Emetreus  

‘kyng of Inde’ in The Knight's Tale enters the lists with his retinue to support Arcite as Lygurge does for Palamon. The character is apparently Chaucer's invention. There is an ...
Thomas of Ynde, Seint

Thomas of Ynde, Seint  

St Thomas, the doubting apostle who insisted on touching the wounds of the risen Christ (John 20:25–8). The legend that he spread the word of God in India was widely ...

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