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India

Subject: History

The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growth India's vast territory can be divided into three main regions ...

Hindi

Hindi   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Hindi . An Indo-Aryan language, spoken by over 250m people in India and by Indians in Britain, Canada, fiji ; guyana , South Africa, surinam ; trinidad and tobago , the US, and elsewhere. Hindi is the official language of the Union of India, with English as associate official language, and one of India’s 22 scheduled languages according to the Indian Constitution. It is written in a modified form of the Devanagari script, and its literary tradition dates from medieval times. Hindi proper has three stylistic varieties: a Sanskritized variety used in...

Anglo-Indian

Anglo-Indian   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Anglo-Indian . 1. Now rare: relating to England or Britain, and India: Anglo-Indian ties . 2. Of English or British people and their activities in India during the Raj: Anglo-Indian words and phrases . 3. Of the community of Eurasians in India descended from European fathers and Indian mothers. The mother tongue of the Anglo-Indian community is English. In present-day India, an Anglo-Indian school is an English-medium private school associated with the community and a Christian denomination, but open to students of all backgrounds. Anglo-Indian...

Indianism

Indianism   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Indianism . An especially linguistic usage or custom peculiar to or common in India and IndE: isn’t it? as a generalized question tag ( You are liking it here, isn’t it? ); repeating a word for emphasis ( It was a small small box ; Put put ; Take take ). See -ism . ...

Urdu

Urdu   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...and grammar but a more heavily Persianized and Arabicized vocabulary. It is the national language of Pakistan and is its co-official language with English. In India, it is the state language of the state of Jammu and Kashmir, and associate state language of the state of Uttar Pradesh. It is spoken as a first language by c. 65m ( 2007 ) and as a second language by c. 100m people in India and Pakistan, and some thousands of people of Indo-Pakistani origin in Fiji, Guyana, South Africa, the UK, and the US. See bangladesh ; hindi ; hindi-urdu ; ...

Contact Variety

Contact Variety   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Contact Variety . In sociolinguistics , a variety of a language, as for example English, that results from contact with other languages usually in multilingual and multicultural contexts such as Africa and India. With the passage of time, the pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, and discourse of such a variety become stable, but in forms that are not necessarily amenable to the standards and assumptions about usage in traditional English-speaking countries. ...

Interlanguage

Interlanguage   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...communication, such as Esperanto , or used as a lingua franca in a particular region, such as Hausa and pidgin English in West Africa. 2. In linguistics , a language intermediate between two or more other languages, generally used as a trade jargon, such as hindlish in India and taglish /Mix-Mix in the Philippines. 3. In language teaching and applied linguistics, the transitional system of a learner of a foreign language at any stage between beginner and advanced. See artificial language ; code-mixing and code-switching ; language learning . ...

Link Language

Link Language   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Link Language . A semi-technical term for a language that allows communication between groups with no other common language: for example, hindi in India, swahili in East Africa. It may or may not be seen as neutral in relation to other languages used in a particular place. English serves as a link language in most of Africa and Asia: ‘English is needed as a link language between the Indian states, and between the union government and the states’ ( Nayantara Sahgal , South , Aug. 1985 ). Compare lingua franca . ...

South Asian English

South Asian English   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...South Asian English ( SAE ) . The English language as used in bangladesh , Bhutan, India, the maldives ; nepal , Pakistan, and sri lanka . The combined populations of these countries, projected as 1,400m in the year 2000 , constitute almost a quarter of the human race. English is their main link language, largely as a result of British commercial, colonial, and educational influence since the 17c. Only Nepal, Bhutan, and the Maldives remained outside the British Raj. All South Asian countries are linguistically and culturally diverse, with two...

Bangladesh

Bangladesh   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...by 98% of Bangladeshis and is the only official language, English is widely used as an additional language in higher education and the legal system, and various indigenous languages. Local links with English date from the 17c; from the 18c till 1947 , Bengal was part of British India. In 1947 , East Bengal became East Pakistan . In 1971 , the territory seceded from Pakistan during a short war and became independent. During the Pakistani period, Urdu was the national language, and English was the official second language (used for administration, higher...

Portuguese

Portuguese   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...as the official language of Brazil; in Africa, as the official language of Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, and Saõ Tomé and Príncipe; in Asia, as the official language of the Portuguese colony of Macao, near Hong Kong, and in ex-colonial territories such as Goa in India and East Timor in the Indian Ocean. It is also spoken by immigrant communities in Canada, France, the US, and elsewhere, and has given rise to or influenced pidgins and creoles in many parts of the world. Like Spanish, it was influenced by arabic during the centuries of...

Nepal

Nepal   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Nepal was never part of the British Empire. English in Nepal is unique in that it was introduced neither by colonization nor by missionaries. Until 1950 , Nepal was a closed society ruled by hereditary prime ministers, but a tradition of English instruction came primarily from India, in whose universities most Nepalese teachers were educated. Since the 1960s, Nepal has had an open-door policy and English has become a major language of travel, tourism, and regional communication. In 1951 , as part of a process of democratization, use of English in the media...

Hindi-Urdu

Hindi-Urdu   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...grammar, and vocabulary, but differ in their script, Hindi being written in Devanagari, Urdu in Perso-Arabic. They differ largely because of politics and religion in the Indian subcontinent: Hindi generally favoured by Hindus, Urdu by Muslims. Hindi is the official language of India, Urdu the national language of Pakistan. Both have been extensively influenced by other languages, but whereas Hindi looks especially to SANSKRIT for its technical vocabulary and literary conventions, Urdu looks especially to Persian and ARABIC. Both have borrowed extensively from...

Aryan

Aryan   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...word was used to mean white and especially Nordic by race. Because of the disrepute of this third sense and confusion about the earlier senses, the term is now used in linguistics and ethnology only in the combination Indo-Aryan , referring to the indo-european languages of India. ...

Multilingualism

Multilingualism   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...in at least three languages; according to others, different languages are used for different purposes, competence in each varying according to such factors as register , occupation, and education. Where an individual has been exposed to several languages, as for example in India, Nigeria, or Singapore, one language may be used in the home, another professionally, another passively for listening or reading, another spoken but not written or read, and so forth. See bilingualism ; language planning ; lingual ; multiculturalism . ...

Code-Mixing and Code-Switching

Code-Mixing and Code-Switching   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...associated with a religion, empire, education, and a wide sphere of operation and interest: for example, social status has long been marked among Hindus in India by introducing elements of Sanskrit and Pali into vernacular use and among Muslims by bringing in Arabic and Persian. In Europe, the same effect has been achieved by introducing elements of Latin and Greek. Today, social status is marked in India and elsewhere by introducing elements of English. It is not always the case that borrowing or switching occurs because speakers do not know the words in one...

Indian English

Indian English   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
2,652 words

...national literature . History The first speaker of English to visit India may have been an ambassador of alfred the Great. The anglo-saxon chronicle states that in ad 884 , Alfred sent an envoy to India with gifts for the tomb of St Thomas . His name appears in one later record as Swithelm, in another as Sigellinus. After this, there was little if any contact until the 16c, when European commercial and colonial expansion began. In 1600 , English traders established the East India Company, and in 1614 James VI wrote to the Emperor Jehangir ,...

Saint Helena

Saint Helena   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...named it after the mother of the Roman emperor Constantine, the saint of the Eastern Church whose feast day it was. St Helena was a port of call for ships travelling to the East Indies, may have been occupied by the Dutch in the mid-17c, and was annexed and occupied by the East India Company in 1659 . In 1873 , nearly half the population was imported slaves. Its remoteness made it the choice for Napoleon ’s exile, 1815–21 . By the later 1830s, the island was under direct British rule. In 1922 , Ascension Island was made a dependency, and in 1966 St...

Boston

Boston   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...capital of the state of Massachusetts and cultural centre of new england , one of the earliest areas of English settlement in what is now the US and a focal point from which English spread. Its social leaders are called Boston Brahmins , a wry allusion to the priestly caste of India. In the 19c, they included such literary figures as Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. , Henry Wadsworth Longfellow , and James Russell Lowell , whose tastes were European and unsympathetic to the majority of 19c US writers, such as Ralph Waldo Emerson , Edgar Allan Poe , Mark Twain...

Rhotic and Non-Rhotic

Rhotic and Non-Rhotic   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...it is vocalized (turned into a vowel) and not pronounced unless another vowel follows. Such a variety is variously known as non-rhotic, non-r-pronouncing , or r-less . The mainly rhotic and non-rhotic communities in the English-speaking world are: (1) Rhotic . Canada; India; Ireland; south-western England; Scotland; the northern and western states of the US apart from the Boston area and New York City; Barbados. (2) Nonrhotic . Black Africa; Australia; the Caribbean, except for Barbados; England apart, in the main, from the south-west; New Zealand;...

Intrusive R

Intrusive R   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...Intrusive R . In some accents of English, including received pronunciation , an /r/ pronounced between the vowels /ɔ, ɑː,ə/ and a following vowel when there is no r in the spelling, as in Australia/r and New Zealand , the India/r Office, draw/r/ing room . Homophonic effects sometimes occur, as in law and order/lore and order . Occasionally, comment on the intrusion is humorous; in Britain, Laura Norder is a friend of the police and an advocate of strong government. The /r/ is in phonological terms an inherent feature of the accent in question, but...

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