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India

Subject: History

The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growth India's vast territory can be divided into three main regions ...

India

India   Reference library

David Anthony Washbrook

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
467 words

...in 1757 , which made him the ‘kingmaker’ in Bengal, India’s richest province. For the next thirty years, there was some hesitancy in British circles at building on these foundations. But, during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars, the opportunity was seized and by 1818 , with the defeat of the Maratha empire, the East India Company had gained supremacy. After the Indian mutiny of 1857 , however, the company was abolished and sovereignty passed to the British crown. In the 19th cent., India was undoubtedly Britain’s most important colony. It...

India

India   Quick reference

A Dictionary of British History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
362 words

... , or Hindustan, was named by the Greeks after the Indus valley. Its dominant civilization was Hindu and Buddhist but, from the 11th cent., it was subject to conquest from the Islamic north. The most famous of its conquerors were the Mughals, who established their empire in 1526 . In the age of exploration, the first Europeans to arrive were the Portuguese who developed a sea‐borne empire centred on Goa. In the early 17th cent., the Dutch displaced the Portuguese, but India was peripheral to their principal interests in Java. The English East India...

India

India   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Irish History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
448 words

... provided a career for Irishmen of all classes and religious denominations. Key figures in the extension of British rule included Laurence Sulivan ( 1713–86 ), born in Co. Cork, dominant from the 1750s in the affairs of the East India Company, and the Co. Antrim landowner George Macartney ( 1737–1806 ), later Earl Macartney of Lisanoure, who as governor of Madras 1780–5 reformed the financial administration of the territory. During the Indian Mutiny ( 1857 ) Sir Henry Lawrence ( 1806–57 ), educated at Foyle College, Derry, won fame for his defence of...

India Bill

India Bill (1783)   Reference library

David Wilkinson

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
109 words

... Bill , 1783 . An abortive reform of the East India Company , drafted largely by Edmund Burke and introduced by the Fox–North coalition. Opponents expressed exaggerated fears that the patronage thus created would give the coalition a stranglehold on power. The actual cause of the bill’s defeat in the Lords in December 1783 was the resentment of George III against his ministers and the underhand pressure he brought to bear by letting it be known, via Lord Temple, that anyone voting for the bill would henceforth be treated as a personal enemy. Secret...

India Bill

India Bill   Quick reference

A Dictionary of British History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
104 words

... Bill , 1783 . An abortive reform of the East India Company , drafted largely by Edmund Burke and introduced by the Fox–North coalition. Opponents expressed exaggerated fears that the patronage thus created would give the coalition a stranglehold on power. The cause of the bill's defeat in the Lords in December 1783 was the resentment of George III against his ministers and the underhand pressure he brought to bear by letting it be known that anyone voting for the bill would henceforth be treated as a personal enemy. Secret and prior negotiations with...

India-China Relations

India-China Relations   Reference library

J. Mohan MALIK

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...India’s, and China receives three times more foreign investment than India ($74.7 billion for China versus $23 billion for India in 2008 ) (Hiscock, 2008 ). China’s dramatic economic progress evokes envy, admiration, and a desire for emulation among Indians, who lament that whether China practices Communism (under Mao) or capitalism (post-Mao), it always does it better than India. Obviously, India has a lot of catching up to do in the economic sphere. Besides, the bulk of Indian exports to China consists of iron ore and other raw materials, while India...

East India Company

East India Company   Reference library

David Anthony Washbrook

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
206 words

...The company began to acquire a territorial empire in India after the battle of Plassey in 1757 . The defeat of the Maratha empire in 1818 gave it undisputed supremacy. Territorial conquest, however, brought about more direct parliamentary control through the Regulation Act of 1773 and the India Act of 1784 . The company was progressively converted from the activities of a merchant to those of a governor. In 1813 and 1833 , it lost its monopolies over the India and China trades. It survived somewhat anomalously as a quasi-department of the British...

East India Company

East India Company   Quick reference

A Dictionary of British History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
127 words

...India Company The first English East India Company was formed in 1599 to compete with the Dutch for the trade of the spice islands. However, following the Amboyna massacre of 1623 , it abandoned the East Indies to concentrate on the Indian subcontinent. The company began to acquire a territorial empire in India after the battle of Plassey in 1757 , and the defeat of the Maratha empire in 1818 gave it undisputed supremacy. Territorial conquest, however, brought about more direct parliamentary control through the Regulation Act of 1773 and the India...

West India interest

West India interest   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Black British History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,085 words

...was the formation of the West India Committee, a body that still exists, though now with a very altered outlook and objectives. In the late 18th century the West India Committee was a group that brought together planters and merchants with interests in the Caribbean colonies. A powerful influence on British politics, it was essentially a London body, though it kept in contact with similar West Indian organizations in other British ports. After the end of the American War of Independence the main function of the West India Committee was to lobby against all...

La Reina de la Raza: The Making of the India Bonita

La Reina de la Raza: The Making of the India Bonita   Reference library

Natasha S. Varner

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mexican History and Culture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
7,496 words
Illustration(s):
1

...india bonita.” 22. “La India Bonita,” El Universal Ilustrado , February 24, 1921. 23. “La gran fiesta de la india bonita en el colon,” El Universal , August 25, 1921. 24. López, Crafting Mexico , 47. 25. “La historia de la india bonita,” El Universal , September 25, 1921. 26. José Albuerne , “Belleza Mexicana,” Revista de Revistas , January 8, 1922. 27. “La india bonita,” El Informador , August 18, 1921. 28. “La india bonita.” 29. “La India Bonita es una abnegada madre de familia,” Excelsior , April 10, 1922. 30. “La India...

India Bill

India Bill  

1783.An abortive reform of the East India Company, drafted largely by Edmund Burke and introduced by the Fox–North coalition. Opponents expressed exaggerated fears that the patronage thus created ...
India–Australia

India–Australia  

Re-emerged as a major economic and strategic concern during the 1980s and 1990s, when Australia became more involved in the Asian region. This development harkened backed to the early years ...
West India interest

West India interest  

In the 18th and early 19th centuries the British colonies in the Caribbean were of considerable value to Britain as a result of the wealth created from slave‐grown sugar and ...
Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence

Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence   Reference library

Geoffrey C. GUNN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...India as the “Panchsheel,” back to December 1953–April 1954 when complex negotiations took place in Beijing between China and India regarding China’s invasion of Tibet in 1950 , an act that exacerbated age-old territorial issues between the two Asian giants. India had been one of the first countries to recognize the People’s Republic of China ( PRC ), and now Beijing sought India’s recognition of China’s suzerainty (dominion) over Tibet. The Five Principles were formally written into the preface of the Agreement between the PRC and the Republic of India...

Xuanzang

Xuanzang (602?–664)   Reference library

Ding-hwa HSIEH

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...he began to learn Sanskrit and decided to go to India to study Buddhism. Paper cutout of Xuanzang (602–664), a monk during the Tang dynasty who endured great troubles as he traveled to India to retrieve Buddhist scriptures. His adventures were the basis of the famous Chinese novel Journey to the West . Xuanzang sneaked out of the Tang capital of Chang’an in 629 after the imperial court refused his petition to travel westward. He crossed the Gobi Desert and took the Silk Roads route via central Asia to India. Having endured numerous hardships and escaped...

Tibetan Uprising of 1959

Tibetan Uprising of 1959   Reference library

Alex McKAY

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...fourteenth Dalai Lama (b. 1935 ), Tibetan spiritual and temporal leader, was forced to flee into exile in India. Since then China has continued to rule Tibet by military force, and the Dalai Lama, who was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1989 , remains leader of the Tibetan government-in-exile in northern India. Events of 1950–1958 In January 1950 , when India formally recognized the new Communist government in Beijing, China informed India of its plans to peacefully “liberate” Tibet from its traditional monastic rulers and from foreign powers. To...

STILWELL, Joseph

STILWELL, Joseph (1883–1946)   Reference library

Thomas P. Dolan

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...a new proposal was made. General Stilwell’s operations officer, Lieutenant Colonel Frank D. Merrill , recommended building a road from Ledo, India, to Burma, connecting with the old Burma Road, which had been built in 1937–1938 , to provide a land supply route from India to China and Burma for support of the Allied soldiers who were fighting in the north Burma region. The connection of the road from Ledo, India, through northern Burma, would permit shipment of supplies to Kunming, China. In late 1944 , barely two years after Stilwell accepted...

Kumarajiva

Kumarajiva (344–413 ce)   Reference library

Nirmal DASS

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...means, “a youthful soul,” or “eternally youthful.” Kumarajiva ( 344–413 ce ) was born in Kucha, in China’s present-day Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. His mother, Jiva, is thought to have been the daughter of the king of Kucha. Kumarajiva’s father is thought to have been from India and to have converted to Buddhism and come to Kucha to participate in its thriving Buddhist community. Scholars do not know what connection Kumarajiva continued to have with his father, although Kumarajiva’s mother had him educated at the local monastery, where he excelled in...

Opium Trade

Opium Trade   Reference library

Man-houng LIN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...sores, and dysentery, among other supposed uses. Opium Imports Intensify From the seventeenth century to the early eighteenth century the Portuguese were the most habitual importers of the opium from India. In 1757 English merchants began to sell Indian opium to China. In 1773 the British East India Company, reaping further the benefits of India’s colonization, exerted influence on the trade, levying a tax on merchants. Overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia played important roles in forwarding Indian opium to China’s various coastal harbors other than...

Pakistan-China Relations

Pakistan-China Relations   Reference library

Urvashi ANEJA

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...areas of Pakistan. They signed their first trade agreement in 1963 , and, in the years that followed, diplomatic exchanges increased significantly. Their strategic partnership was initially driven by the mutual need to counter the Soviet Union and India, and China supported Pakistan in its two wars against India in 1965 and 1971 with both military and economic assistance. The military alliance led further to the creation of a Joint Committee for Economy, Trade, and Technology in 1982 , and in the late 1980s China began discussing the possible sales of...

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