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India

Subject: History

The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growth India's vast territory can be divided into three main regions ...

India

India   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
8,820 words
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5

...study on the princely states in colonial India. Dutt, V. P. India's Foreign Policy . New Delhi, India: Vikas, 1984. Provides a broad overview of Indian foreign policy since independence up to the Indira Gandhi era. Fisher, Michael H. , ed. The Politics of the British Annexation of India, 1757–1857 . Delhi, India: Oxford University Press, 1993. An excellent introduction, with primary sources, on the process of British conquest of India. Forbes, Geraldine . Women in Modern India . The New Cambridge History of India. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University...

India

India   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,326 words
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...partition of India, completed on 15 August 1947 , when India and Pakistan became independent. The Constitution of India (1947–1960s) Independence had been negotiated largely by Gandhi 's lieutenant, Nehru , who came to dominate Indian affairs until his death in 1964 , and even afterwards through the leadership of his daughter and his grandson respectively. His able ministers, especially Patel and Ambedkar , had drafted a Constitution by 1950 , which integrated 562 formerly autonomous princely states into the Union of India. India became a...

Communist Parties, India

Communist Parties, India   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
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400 words

...Communist Parties, India A small Communist Party was formed clandestinely in India in the early 1920s, attracting support from anti‐British intellectuals, and in the cities of Bombay and Calcutta. In contrast to the Communist movements in Indochina and China, it failed to win mass support from the peasantry. It affiliated to the Indian National Congress ( INC ), with which it had an ambiguous relationship, alternating between rejection and support. They united in their opposition to World War II, but in 1941 , after Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union,...

Government of India Acts

Government of India Acts (1919)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
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266 words

...statehood. The Government of India Act ( 1919 ) established a bicameral legislative parliament for all British India, but without the power to restrain the Viceroy's executive. In the provinces, the Act aimed to prepare Indians for ‘responsible government’ through the system of dyarchy . This system of dyarchy was abolished by the Government of India Act ( 1935 , implemented 1937 ), which gave the provincial assemblies full responsibility for government. It also removed Aden and Burma from the administration of British India. Finally, it proposed that the...

East India Company, Dutch

East India Company, Dutch   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,042 words

...Gaastra, Femme S. The Dutch East India Company: Expansion and Decline . Zutphen, The Netherlands: Walburg Pers, 2003. Jacobs, Els M. Merchant in Asia: The Trade of the Dutch East India Company during the Eighteenth Century . Translated by Paul Hulsman . Leiden, The Netherlands: CNWS Publications, 2006. Prakash, Om . The Dutch East India Company and the Economy of Bengal, 1630–1720 . Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1985. Prakash, Om . European Commercial Enterprise in Pre-colonial India . Cambridge, U.K., and New York: Cambridge...

East India Company, British

East India Company, British   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,386 words

...India Act of 1858 , full company powers were transferred to the English Crown, and on 1 June 1874 the charter granted in 1854 lapsed. With that the company was dissolved, becoming part of the heritage of many different countries. [ See also Colonialism ; East India Company, Dutch ; Empire and Imperialism ; India ; Myanmar ; and Plassey, Battle of . ] Bibliography Keay, John . The Honourable Company: A History of the English East India Company . London: HarperCollins, 1991. A deep, incisive, and revealing study. Lawson, Philip . The East India...

Government of India Acts

Government of India Acts  

(1919, 1935)Two British Acts of Parliament which determined the structure of government in India. They were created with the aim of appeasing Indian nationalism and preventing India's eventual ...
Simon Commission

Simon Commission (1927–30)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
102 words

...into political conditions in British India. It consisted of seven members, and was chaired jointly by John Simon and Clement Attlee . It met a hostile reception in India, and was boycotted there because it had no Indian members. It recommended giving greater autonomy to Indian provincial governments, but maintaining a veto for the Viceroy. It also rejected parliamentary government for India as a whole. The report was discussed at the Round Table Conferences , and it had some influence on the 1935 Government of India Act...

Hyderabad

Hyderabad   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
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127 words

...Hyderabad Formerly a princely state in India. Following an agreement with Lord Curzon in 1902 , the Nizams of Hyderabad became rulers of the largest princely state in British India. During the 1920s and 1930s they continually resisted demands from the state congress for more responsible government, and in 1947 the Nizam declared Hyderabad an independent state. The state congress, supported by the Indian National Congress , started civil resistance, and a period of political chaos was ended in September 1948 by the Indian army. The Nizam then accepted...

dyarchy

dyarchy   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
120 words

...dyarchy A system of government formally introduced into British India by the 1919 Government of India Act . Government of the thirteen Indian provinces was to be on a dual basis: a reserved area of finance, police, and justice, which remained under the control of the Governor; and a transferred area, such as local government, education, and health, under the control of Indian ministers chosen from the elected members of a legislative council. Introduced by the Secretary of State for India, Edwin Samuel Montagu on the basis of the Montagu‐Chelmsford...

Radhakrishnan, Sir Sarvepalli

Radhakrishnan, Sir Sarvepalli (5 Sept. 1888)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
121 words

..., 5 Sept. 1888 ; d. Chennai , 16 Apr. 1975 ) President of India , 1962–7 Born into a Brahmin family, he was educated in Madras and taught philosophy there, at Mysore and Calcutta, before teaching as professor of eastern religion and ethics at Oxford 1932–52 . He wrote extensively on Hindu religious and philosophical thought, seeking to reinterpret it for modern times. He also served as India's first ‘ambassador extraordinary’ to the Soviet Union 1949–52 and then as Vice-President of India, before succeeding President Prasad . Having made a lasting...

Rowlatt Act

Rowlatt Act (1919)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
134 words

...Rowlatt Act ( 1919 ) Legislation introduced by the British colonial government in India. It was based upon the recommendation of a committee chaired by Mr Justice Rowlatt , which introduced emergency powers for the authorities similar to those used during World War I. The Act was considered a necessary prelude to ensure public calm for the introduction of the 1919 Government of India Act . However, it aroused strong opposition throughout India, and directly led to the popular protests that triggered the Amritsar Massacre . Thus, it virtually destroyed...

Goa

Goa   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
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42 words

...Goa A small Portuguese colony on the Indian subcontinent between 1510 and 1961 . Neglected by the Portuguese, it was incorporated into India after brief military action. It became a state of the Union in May 1987 , with three elected Members of...

Naxalites

Naxalites ((India))   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
144 words

...Naxalites (India) A radical Indian Communist terrorist organization, named after the Naxalbari area in the Himalayan foothills of West Bengal, where it first began its violent campaigns in 1967 . Under the leadership of Charu Mazumdar , its members had broken away from the Communist Party of India (Marxist). In 1969 , they officially formed the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist). This CPI (M-L) first organized armed risings of landless agricultural labourers out to kill landowners and government officials, especially in eastern India. Later it...

Rajagopalachari, Chakravarti

Rajagopalachari, Chakravarti (8 Dec. 1878)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
168 words

... of India 1948–50 The son of a landowner and Sanskrit scholar, he was admitted to the Bar in 1900 and became a successful lawyer. He became a loyal follower of Gandhi , whose defiant campaigns of non-cooperation he supported. Known as ‘Rajaji’, he was general secretary of the Indian National Congress ( INC ) 1921–2 , and ran the Congress disobedience campaigns in southern India. He was chief minister of Madras ( 1937–9 ), but resigned as part of Congress's protest against the British declaration of war against Germany on India's behalf. More...

Kashmir

Kashmir   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
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488 words

...Azad Kashmir to Pakistan and the remainder of the state to India. The Maharaja abdicated in 1951 in favour of his son, but the state assembly declared the state a republic, and in January 1957 it was formally integrated within the Union of India as the state of Jammu and Kashmir. In the Indo-Chinese War of 1962 , substantial areas in the north-east were conceded to China. Renewed fighting in 1965 ended again in deadlock. Kashmir continued to be claimed in its entirety by both India and Pakistan. Throughout the 1980s there were continued riots...

Sikkim

Sikkim   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
95 words

...finally, China, so that Britain declared a protectorate over the small state in 1889 . Ruled feudally by chogyals (kings), it transferred to an Indian protectorate after 1947 , though it retained its own internal autonomy. India defended its northern border in the 1962 Indo-Chinese War . Popular pressure for incorporation into India was finally successful, against the resistance of the chogyals, after a 1974 referendum. It was incorporated as the twenty-second state of the Indian Union on 16 May 1975...

South Asian Languages

South Asian Languages   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

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Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,708 words

...Hindi (written in the Devanagari script) was made India's national language. Since Hindi was not universally spoken in India, English, which was spoken by elites across India owing to colonial rule, was also designated as a national language. Though English was initially designated a national language for only fifteen years, early in the twenty-first century it continued to function as one of India's national languages. Choosing Hindi as a national language posed immediate political problems for India's leaders. Most critically, in choosing Hindi, a...

Naoroji, Dadabhai

Naoroji, Dadabhai (4 Sept. 1825)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
219 words

...of India, founding the British India Society in 1865 , over which he presided until 1907 . He was a founding member of the Indian National Congress , whose president he was in 1886 , 1893 , and 1906 . He was also the first (Liberal) Member of Parliament in Britain ( 1892–5 ), sitting for Finsbury, to represent the case of India at Westminster. To this end, he gave evidence to a variety of Royal Commissions, and was himself a member of the Welby Commission (Royal Commission on Indian Expenditure) from 1897 . Known as the Grand Old Man of India, he...

Raj, British

Raj, British   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

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2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
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208 words

...word raja (king), it denotes the British Empire of India. Its beginnings date back to the foundation of the British East India Company in 1600 , though the Raj was not formally established until the subcontinent had come under British control in its entirety in 1858 , and Queen Victoria was proclaimed Empress of India in 1877 . British control over the directly ruled territories (about three-fifths of the total area) was exercised by a Secretary of State in the British Cabinet and a Viceroy in India. The administration was staffed by the Indian Civil...

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