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Overview

India

Subject: History

The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growth India's vast territory can be divided into three main regions ...

East India Company

East India Company   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...India Company , which began as a commercial venture, became the instrument for Britain's conquest of India and more generally a vehicle for the dissemination of British economic, strategic, and cultural influence throughout monsoon Asia [ see *empire, 5 ; Warren *Hastings ]. Launched in 1600 by a group of London merchants, the Company won a royal charter giving it exclusive rights over the Asian trade. This was one pillar of its commercial success. The other was its financial structure. The East India Company was one of the first of the new joint-stock...

Empire

Empire   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,298 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...Moreover, British policy towards India had moved in the direction of maintaining firmer control—even, if necessary, at the expense of the traditional privileges of the *East India Company and the demands of British residents. As Lord Stormont remarked of the machinery established by the India Act of 1784 , which vested supreme power over Indian affairs in a governmental Board of Control, the goal was ‘a strong government in India, subject to the check and control of a still stronger government at home’. Policy towards India, then, reflected the prevailing...

Mythology

Mythology   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,714 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...with Bryant in his account of the diffusion of the Cushite children of Ham—‘the most ingenious and enterprising of the three, but the most arrogant, cruel and idolatrous’. Spreading out into India, China, America, Egypt, the Mediterranean, and Scandinavia, they preserved the common linguistic and mythological heritage explored in ‘The Gods of Greece, Italy and India’. Whatever his own motivations, this kind of speculation risked fuelling the fires of sceptics, particularly since Jones discarded Bryant's notion that pagan solar myths were actually distorted...

Slavery

Slavery   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,891 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...lowliest of homes, and could be bought, for pennies, from humble local shops in the most inaccessible corners of the British Isles. Sugar was an additive for ever more foodstuffs, but it was as an ingredient in drinks—most notably tea—that its pre-eminence was secured. The West India lobby, that nexus of planters, shippers, financiers, and agents which formed so powerful a group in mid-eighteenth-century London, was keen to promote tea-drinking, a habit which had taken root in the years from 1685 to 1700 , thereafter remaining a characteristic feature of the...

Utopianism

Utopianism   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,929 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and Shelley also drew inspiration from utopian models and genres associated with the East. *Hellenism had long been rivalled by traditions of antiquarian scholarship [ see *antiquarianism, 35 ] and travel which located the source of ancient wisdom and knowledge in Egypt or India. Opprobrious images and accounts of Turkey and Islamic culture dating back from the Crusades were to some extent reversed early in the eighteenth century by the dazzlingly popular impact of English translations of the Arabian Nights Entertainments . Its sensational exoticism, in...

War

War   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,919 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...defence of the national base and the exposed territories overseas. As it happened, French naval power failed to effect an invasion of Britain, and elsewhere was mostly successfully contained. When the costs of the war came to be counted, Britain's position in the Caribbean and India was still secure; and even the loss of the American colonies proved to have little impact on the continued expansion of British trade. Nevertheless, the American war provoked a pessimistic assessment of Britain's economic progress (and, by implication, of its future as a great...

Music

Music   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,344 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

... was no match for Weber's fantastical Oberon . There was, also, a growth of popular and ethnographic interest in music outside Britain and Europe at this time, particularly in *Indian music , a fascination generated by the increased colonial development and settlement of India during this period. Only in the 1830s did a recognizable early Romantic school emerge, with younger composers like Barnett , Sterndale Bennett , and Macfarren . 1834 saw both the opening of a dedicated English Opera House and the founding of a Society of British Musicians....

Novels

Novels   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
6,137 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...as the opportunity for commentary on the organization of emigrant and ethnic groups: Mary Shelley 's Lodore ( 1835 ) is set partly in Illinois, John *Galt 's Lawrie Todd ( 1830 ) in Canada, while Scott's The Surgeon's Daughter ( 1827 ) follows its lovers from Scotland to India. More widespread even than the influence of philosophical history however, was the notion, partly indebted to Rousseau and partly to sentimentalism, that private and domestic history is as important as public history. Many novelists echo Burney's declaration at the start of ...

Political Economy

Political Economy   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,138 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...older political languages forged over a longer period by *constitutional debate. It had acquired a role that befitted Smith's description of it as ‘a branch of the science of a statesman or legislator’. It had also become an appropriate subject for Malthus to teach at the East India College to budding civil servants before they left to govern the affairs of the Indian subcontinent. What also needs to be mentioned in conclusion, however, is that during the same period, largely as a reaction to its growing public prominence, political economy acquired some of...

Prints

Prints   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,058 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...its efficacy as propaganda. It is hard to measure its impact because it was almost always part of a larger campaign involving pamphlets and *newspapers . There is certainly anecdotal evidence that Fox was damaged by James Sayers 's ( 1748–1823 ) caricatures in the row over the India Bill of 1784 , and it is hard to believe that the slow drip of Gillray's ceaseless portrayal of Fox as a sleazy, cowardly, and hypocritical opportunist did not undermine his credibility in some quarters at least. Certainly William Pitt and his colleagues felt more comfortable...

Exploration

Exploration   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,825 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...in the Horn of Africa in 1809–10 were also officially directed, in that case particularly toward establishing relations with the Abyssinian rulers, while Crawfurd's 1820s accounts of Java, Thailand, and China emerged from commercial investigations and diplomacy for the *East India Company . A slightly earlier work might, however, be seen as the consummation of these developments— Thomas Raffles 's History of Java ( 1817 ), written not from an exploratory voyage but from the author's administration during the brief period of British rule ( 1811–16 ). Like...

History

History   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,067 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...subject was opened up by John Lingard 's ( 1771–1851 ) History of England ( 1819–30 ). Henry Hallam 's ( 1777–1859 ) View of the State of Europe during the Middle Ages ( 1818 ) became an important touchstone for Victorian medievalism, as James *Mill 's History of British India ( 1817 ) was to be for later writings on the colonization of South Asia. Histories were also produced by writers better known for work in other fields: William *Cobbett 's History of the Protestant Reformation in England and Ireland ( 1824–7 ), for example, or Robert...

Xavier, Francis

Xavier, Francis (1506–1552)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
388 words

...of Jesus, or Jesuits. John III of Portugal wanted Jesuit missionaries for his Asian empire. Xavier sailed from Lisbon for India in 1542 as Jesuit superior and papal nuncio. He won many converts in India ( 1542–1545 ), then spent the next two years in various islands of Indonesia, especially the Moluccas. His time was spent partly with Portuguese traders and officials, partly with the native peoples. In 1547/48 he returned to India and reorganized Jesuit work there. In 1549 he sailed for Japan and laid the foundations of Christianity; the Jesuit mission...

Mill, James

Mill, James (1773–1836)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...India ( 1817 ) which brought him the appointment in 1819 to the East India Company and hence provided him with financial security for the rest of his life. Mill 's History was influential in its attempt to use British India as a testing-ground for utilitarianism. It also played a role in strengthening the increasing influence of utilitarianism as a school of thought on British Indian administration [ see history, 38 and *mythology, 36 ]. But it would be misplaced to see the History as only an attempt to apply utilitarianism to British India. The...

nabobs

nabobs   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...century to those newly rich members of élite society whose fortunes had been made in India. In part, establishment disapproval of the nabobs rested on sheer snobbery, for they were overwhelmingly self-made men from middle-class or Celtic backgounds. But there was also a large measure of envy. The rapid rise of British military power and the breakdown of indigenous ruling structures in late-eighteenth-century India produced an environment in which bold and lucky *East India Company servants, on the surface quite poorly remunerated, were able to amass huge...

Hodges, William

Hodges, William (1744–97)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...William ( 1744–97 ), *landscape painter and pupil of Richard *Wilson . Though he travelled and painted extensively within Britain and Europe, and visited India, Hodges's most renowned work derives from his appointment to Cook's second voyage of *exploration [37] . During the voyage, which incorporated Antarctic cruises in search of a great southern land, as well as visits to Tahiti, Tonga, New Zealand, and many other Pacific islands, he produced a remarkable corpus of sketches, *watercolours , and oils. Hodges departed substantially from classical...

Hastings, Warren

Hastings, Warren (1732–1818)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...memorable speeches on the responsibilities owed by conquering powers to subject peoples. Hastings epitomized the luck, spirit, and ruthlessness on which the British *empire [5] in India was built. Arriving in India in 1750 at the tender age of 17 and managing, unlike so many of his contemporaries, to survive the climate, Hastings rose swiftly through the ranks of the *East India Company . In 1758 he was elevated to a seat on the Bengal council and in 1772 , still only 39, he succeeded to the governor-generalship. Despite his relative youth he proved an...

Van Braam Houckgeest, Andreas Everardus

Van Braam Houckgeest, Andreas Everardus (1739–1801)   Reference library

Stephen J. Gutwald

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...to the imagination of the American Enlightenment. Born in the Dutch province of Utrecht in 1739 , Van Braam served briefly in the Dutch navy before, in 1758 , sailing as an officer on a Dutch East India ship bound for China. The next fifteen years Van Braam spent in the Chinese cities of Canton and Macao, acting as a representative of the Dutch East India Company. He returned to Holland in 1773 . A supporter of the democratic patriot movement in Holland, and a proponent of Enlightenment liberty, Van Braam also declared warm support for American...

Jones, Sir William

Jones, Sir William (1746–94)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
1,101 words

...between cultures to be made on a firmer foundation. However, Jones himself considered his most important work in India to be a project for a digest of Hindu and Muslim laws. Its fruition was the publication of Al Sirajiyyah: or the Mohamedan Law of Inheritance in 1792 , and the Institutes of Hindu Law, or the ordinances of Menu in 1796 . The latter text was the basis on which judicial interpretation of this branch of law in British India was built. These works, together with the earlier The Speeches of Isaeus ( 1779 ) and An Essay on the Law of...

Duane, William

Duane, William (1760–1835)   Reference library

Nigel Little

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Protestant girl and began an apprenticeship as a printer with a local newspaper. Duane later worked in London as a parliamentary reporter and journalist, before sailing to India in January 1787 . He set up two newspapers in Calcutta—the Bengal Journal and The World —before being deported back to England by the East India Company in January 1795 for his support of disgruntled East India Company Army officers and of the French Revolution. Duane became a member of the London Corresponding Society in England and an editor of the pro-LCS newspaper The...

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