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India

Subject: History

The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growth India's vast territory can be divided into three main regions ...

India

India   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
388 words

...of Christianity to the caste system of southern India. The first Dutch fleet arrived in India in 1595 and the first English fleet in 1601 . Both countries established a commercial presence in India, and within twenty years had dismantled the Portuguese monopoly. Eventually eight European East India Companies were formed (by Austria, Denmark, England, France, the Netherlands, Scotland, Spain, Sweden), all of which traded with India. The English company eventually emerged as the dominant European power in India, which it administered until the government was...

East India Company

East India Company   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

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Current Version:
2005

...India Company , The English term for the eight incorporated companies established in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries for the purpose of trade with Asia. The first and most prominent companies were the Dutch East India Company and the (English) Honourable East India Company . Companies were subsequently established by Austria, Denmark, France, Scotland, Spain (the Ostend Company), and...

Casa da Índia

Casa da Índia   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

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Current Version:
2005

...da Índia , The commission established by the Portuguese government to regulate trade with the Portuguese empire in Asia. Its antecedent institution was the Casa da Guiné e Mina, which had governed trade with West Africa, but the establishment of Portuguese outposts in India and in the Far East led to an extension of its jurisdiction. Like the Spanish Casa de Contratación , the Casa da Índia was responsible for the inspection of the merchant fleet and for crown monopolies such as the slave trade; it also collected taxes from subjugated peoples of the...

Sigismondo d'India

Sigismondo d'India (c.1582–c.1629)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

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Current Version:
2005

...d'India ( c. 1582– c. 1629 ), Italian composer from Naples who was active in Florence, Mantua, and Rome. In 1611 he was at the Savoy court of Carlo Emanuele I in Turin. He wrote some sacred music and many secular songs and...

Dutch East India Company

Dutch East India Company   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

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Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
849 words

...East India Company . On 20 March 1602 the Estates-General of the United Provinces issued a charter creating the company known in Dutch as the Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (or the Oostindische Vereenigde Maatschappij). The company was thereafter responsible for the regulation and protection of Dutch trade in the Indian Ocean and assumed an important role in the overseas theatres of the Revolt of the Netherlands . Until Spain conquered Portugal in 1580 , the principal carriers of African and Asian goods from Lisbon to northern Europe had been...

East India Company, the Honourable

East India Company, the Honourable   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

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2005

...India Company, the Honourable . First formed in 1599 to challenge Dutch supremacy in the spice trade, the energies of the company focused mainly on the Indian subcontinent. The frequent revocation (and reissue) of the company's charter dogged its progress in the seventeenth century, although trading relations established then provided a foundation for its later prosperity, and such further developments as the acquisition of territory, in the eighteenth century and...

Casa da Índia

Casa da Índia  

The commission established by the Portuguese government to regulate trade with the Portuguese empire in Asia. Its antecedent institution was the Casa da Guiné e Mina, which had governed trade ...
Sigismondo d'India

Sigismondo d'India  

(c.1582–c.1629),Italian composer from Naples who was active in Florence, Mantua, and Rome. In 1611 he was at the Savoy court of Carlo Emanuele I in Turin. He wrote some sacred music and many secular ...
Dutch East India Company

Dutch East India Company  

A chartered company established (1602) under the aegis of Prince Maurice of Nassau to coordinate the activities of companies competing for trade in the East Indies and to act as an arm of the Dutch ...
East India Company, the Honourable

East India Company, the Honourable  

First formed in 1599 to challenge Dutch supremacy in the spice trade, the energies of the company focused mainly on the Indian subcontinent. The frequent revocation (and reissue) of the ...
Casa de Contratación de las Indias

Casa de Contratación de las Indias   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

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Current Version:
2005

...de Contratación de las Indias , A commission established by Juan Rodríguez de Fonseca to regulate Spanish trade with the Americas; the commission met in Seville from 1503 to 1718 . The responsibilities of the Casa included the inspection of ships and the collection of taxes, including the 20 per cent tax on precious metals mined in America. The Casa also functioned as a law court which dealt with commercial disputes. Diccionario de historia de España ; H. and P. Chaunu , Séville et l'Atlantique (8 vols.,...

Casa de Contratación de las Indias

Casa de Contratación de las Indias  

A commission established by Juan Rodríguez de Fonseca to regulate Spanish trade with the Americas; the commission met in Seville from 1503 to 1718. The responsibilities of the Casa included ...
Correia, Gaspar

Correia, Gaspar (c.1495–c.1561)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

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2005

...Gaspar ( c. 1495– c. 1561 ), Portuguese historian of India who sailed in 1512 for India, where he became the secretary of Afonso de Albuquerque ; he remained in India and the Portuguese East for the rest of his life, which ended with his murder in Malacca. His Lendas da Índia , which remained unpublished until 1858 , is an account of Indian culture, a chronicle of events from 1495 to 1550 , and an indictment of the colonial administration. Dicionário de história de Portugal ; Aubrey Bell , Gaspar Corrêa ...

Orta, Garcia de

Orta, Garcia de (c.1500–c.1568)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

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Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
122 words

...in Salamanca and Alcalá. In 1526 he moved to Lisbon, where he taught at the university. In 1534 he travelled in the entourage of Martim Afonso de Sousa to India, where he settled permanently in Goa and practised medicine in the viceregal court. He collected his research on the medicinal plants and drugs of India in his wide-ranging Coloquios dos simples e drogas e cousas medicinais da India (Goa, 1563 ). After his death Orta was condemned by the Portuguese Inquisition because his profession of Christianity was said to mask a secret observance of...

Castanheda, Fernão Lopes de

Castanheda, Fernão Lopes de (d. 1559)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

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Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
151 words

...Fernão Lopes de ( d. 1559 ), Portuguese historian, the illegitimate son of a royal administrator. In 1528 he accompanied his father to India, and for the next ten years worked in Goa and the Spice Islands (now Moluccas). In 1538 he returned to Portugal and began to assemble materials for a huge account of the Portuguese conquest of India and the Indies. The ten volumes of his História do descobrimento e conquista da Índia pelos Portugueses , of which the last three were published posthumously, were based on the documentary record and on oral sources....

Indies, Council of the

Indies, Council of the   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

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Current Version:
2005

...of the , or (Spanish) Consejo de las Indias , The body created by Charles V in 1524 to govern the Spanish dominions in America. The Council initially consisted of six members and later expanded to ten. It was responsible for the preparation of successive versions of the Laws of the Indies and also acted as the highest court of the dominions. In 1571 the Council created the post of historian and cosmographer of the Indies. Diccionario de historia de España ; E. Schäfer , El consejo real y supremo de las Indias (2 vols.,...

Galvão, António

Galvão, António (c.1490–1557)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

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2005

...António ( c. 1490–1557 ), Portuguese historian who travelled to India in 1527 and later served as governor of the Moluccas ( 1536–40 ); he was said to have declined the throne of Ternate (in the Moluccas). He returned to Portugal in 1540 , fell out of favour with the court, and died in poverty. His posthumously published Livro dos descobrimentos das Antilhas de Índia (Lisbon, 1563 ), which was translated into English by Hakluyt in 1603 , was a comprehensive account of the European exploration of Asia up to that time. Dicionário de história de...

Sousa, Martim Afonso de

Sousa, Martim Afonso de (1500–64)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

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Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
175 words

...administrator in Brazil and India. He was born into an aristocratic family and served as a soldier before travelling to Brazil in 1531 as the head of a naval expedition. He explored the coast of Brazil, and founded a colony on the island of São Vicente, near what is now São Paulo. Sousa returned to Portugal, and in 1534 was appointed governor of India. He was active on the coast of Kerala, intervening in the wars between Cochin and Calicut, and then again returned to Portugal. In 1542 he was appointed viceroy of India, and in the course of his...

Couto, Diogo do

Couto, Diogo do (1542)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

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Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
144 words

...in Lisbon, where he was educated at the Jesuit College. In 1559 he sailed as a soldier to India, where he became a friend of Camões . He returned to Portugal for two years ( 1569–71 ), but then returned to India and lived in Goa for the rest of his life. He was appointed royal historiographer by King Philip II of Spain, in which capacity he wrote Diálogo do soldado prático (first published in 1790 ), which was critical of the Portuguese administration in India. In 1595 he was appointed as archivist in Goa, and thereafter he devoted his time to the...

Baffin, William

Baffin, William (1584–1622)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

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Current Version:
2005

...William ( 1584–1622 ), English explorer. He sought a North-West passage to Asia on a number of voyages in the 1610s, using notably accurate measurements and observations. The large island he discovered north of Hudson Bay was later named after him. He was killed in India during a skirmish with the Portuguese. Dictionary of National Biography...

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