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India

Subject: History

The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growth India's vast territory can be divided into three main regions ...

India

India   Reference library

Judith Brown

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
5,182 words
Illustration(s):
3

...was that India, compared with its contribution in the earlier years of the century, had declined in economic value to the UK; and Britain was for the first time India's debtor rather than creditor as a result of the war effort and India's vast sterling balances. In such a situation there could be no reassertion of empire. The end of the Raj in India was also highly significant for the future of Britain's relations with its other colonies and its attempts to construct patterns of world-wide defence. The protection of India and routes to India had been at...

India

India   Reference library

Rebecca Darley

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... and Ceylon Understanding references to ‘India’ in Late Roman texts is complicated by the flexible use of this term by contemporary authors. ‘India’ might denote any region south and/or east of the Red Sea, including China , Ethiopia ( Aksum ), the Indian subcontinent, and South-East Asia. Rufinus of Aquileia ’s account in his Ecclesiastical History of the conversion of Aksum to Christianity by the brothers Frumentius and Aedesius makes this especially clear in his account of the brothers setting out on a voyage to India (= India) before being...

India

India   Reference library

David Anthony Washbrook

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
467 words

...in 1757 , which made him the ‘kingmaker’ in Bengal, India’s richest province. For the next thirty years, there was some hesitancy in British circles at building on these foundations. But, during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars, the opportunity was seized and by 1818 , with the defeat of the Maratha empire, the East India Company had gained supremacy. After the Indian mutiny of 1857 , however, the company was abolished and sovereignty passed to the British crown. In the 19th cent., India was undoubtedly Britain’s most important colony. It...

India

India   Reference library

Rebecca Darley and István Perczel

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... and south Asia , Christianity in A settled Christian presence in south India , with some spread to Sri Lanka (Ceylon) and further east, is securely attested from the 6th century , but communities had probably existed in India from at least the 4th century . Modern communities, concentrated in Kerala (South India) and called S. Thomas, Syrian, or Māppiḷa Christians, claim a 1st-century conversion by S. Thomas, though the Acts of Thomas ( ATh ) are concerned mainly with areas further north. The Acts , composed wholly or partially in the 3rd...

India

India   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
388 words

...of Christianity to the caste system of southern India. The first Dutch fleet arrived in India in 1595 and the first English fleet in 1601 . Both countries established a commercial presence in India, and within twenty years had dismantled the Portuguese monopoly. Eventually eight European East India Companies were formed (by Austria, Denmark, England, France, the Netherlands, Scotland, Spain, Sweden), all of which traded with India. The English company eventually emerged as the dominant European power in India, which it administered until the government was...

India

India   Reference library

Eric Herbert Warmington and Romila Thapar

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,049 words

...In the 2nd cent. NW India was occupied by the Graeco-Bactrian rulers ( see bactria ; demetrius (9) ii ; euthydemus (2–3) i-ii ; indo-greeks ; menander (2) ); but the rise of the Parthian empire ( see parthia ) separated India from the Greek lands, and invaders from central Asia ( c. 80–30 bc ) obliterated the Greek principalities in the Indus valley; see gandhara . In the 1st cent. ad Chinese silk reached the Roman dominions through India, but land communications with India remained irregular. The chief routes to India were (1) via Meshed and...

India

India   Reference library

Eric Herbert Warmington and Romila Thapar

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
950 words
Illustration(s):
1

...trade with India being extended eastwards by Indian traders. Nevertheless, Greek geographers always underrated the extent of India’s southward projection and exaggerated the size of Sri Lanka. From c . ad 200 direct Graeco-Roman trade declined, communications with India passed into the hands of intermediaries (Arabians, Axumites, Sasanid Persians), and India again became a land of fable to the Mediterranean world. The founders of Christian settlements in India came largely from Persia. Eric Herbert Warmington / Romila Thapar India Marble Roman...

India

India   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
977 words

...(Arrian Alexander 6.19–7.20; Arrian On India ). Northwest India remained in the control of Seleucus I until 301 , but thereafter the region fell under a long succession of Mauryan, Greco-Bactrian, Indo-Greek, Parthian, and central Asian rulers. The vast portion of India to the south was unfamiliar to residents of the Mediterranean, apart from the subcontinent's rich exports and the ports that flourished on the western and southeastern coasts. Although discontinuous contact between the Mediterranean and India existed in prehistory, regular trade did not...

India

India   Quick reference

A Dictionary of British History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
362 words

... , or Hindustan, was named by the Greeks after the Indus valley. Its dominant civilization was Hindu and Buddhist but, from the 11th cent., it was subject to conquest from the Islamic north. The most famous of its conquerors were the Mughals, who established their empire in 1526 . In the age of exploration, the first Europeans to arrive were the Portuguese who developed a sea‐borne empire centred on Goa. In the early 17th cent., the Dutch displaced the Portuguese, but India was peripheral to their principal interests in Java. The English East India...

India

India   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
8,820 words
Illustration(s):
5

...study on the princely states in colonial India. Dutt, V. P. India's Foreign Policy . New Delhi, India: Vikas, 1984. Provides a broad overview of Indian foreign policy since independence up to the Indira Gandhi era. Fisher, Michael H. , ed. The Politics of the British Annexation of India, 1757–1857 . Delhi, India: Oxford University Press, 1993. An excellent introduction, with primary sources, on the process of British conquest of India. Forbes, Geraldine . Women in Modern India . The New Cambridge History of India. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University...

India

India   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,326 words
Illustration(s):
1

...partition of India, completed on 15 August 1947 , when India and Pakistan became independent. The Constitution of India (1947–1960s) Independence had been negotiated largely by Gandhi 's lieutenant, Nehru , who came to dominate Indian affairs until his death in 1964 , and even afterwards through the leadership of his daughter and his grandson respectively. His able ministers, especially Patel and Ambedkar , had drafted a Constitution by 1950 , which integrated 562 formerly autonomous princely states into the Union of India. India became a...

India

India   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Irish History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
448 words

... provided a career for Irishmen of all classes and religious denominations. Key figures in the extension of British rule included Laurence Sulivan ( 1713–86 ), born in Co. Cork, dominant from the 1750s in the affairs of the East India Company, and the Co. Antrim landowner George Macartney ( 1737–1806 ), later Earl Macartney of Lisanoure, who as governor of Madras 1780–5 reformed the financial administration of the territory. During the Indian Mutiny ( 1857 ) Sir Henry Lawrence ( 1806–57 ), educated at Foyle College, Derry, won fame for his defence of...

India

India   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
8,954 words

... Satish Chandra . New Delhi, India, and Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage, 1987. Arunachalam, B. Heritage of Indian Sea Navigation . Mumbai, India: Maritime History Society, 2002. Basham, A. L. The Wonder That Was India: A Study of the History and Culture of the Indian Sub-continent before the Coming of the Muslims . Rev. ed. New York: Hawthorn, 1963. Casson, Lionel , ed. and trans. The “Periplus Maris Erythraei.” Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1989. Gopal, Lallanji . Art of Shipbuilding and Navigation in Ancient India . Journal of Indian History ...

India

India   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Exploration

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History
Length:
34 words

... . See Bombay Geographical Society ; Curzon, George Nathaniel ; David-Neel, Alexandra ; Everest, George ; Exotic, Monstrous, and Wild Peoples and Animals ; Expeditions, World Exploration, subentry on England ; da Gama, Vasco ; Indian Ocean ; Pundit Mapmakers ; and ...

India

India   Quick reference

A Dictionary of World History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History
Length:
1,131 words
Illustration(s):
1

...were poised to take advantage of the power vacuum and the renewal of internecine struggle. Victorious over its French rival, the English East India Company laid the basis in the 18th century for the subsequent hegemony of the British Raj . Following the Indian Mutiny control of India passed, via The Act for the Better Government of India ( 1858 ) from the English East India Company to the British Crown. The India Acts of the late 19th and early 20th century granted greater Indian involvement in government. The Indian National Congress, founded in 1885 ,...

India

India   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
7,586 words
Illustration(s):
3

...in South Asia . New Delhi, India: Kali for Women, 1986. Bhatt, Ela R. “ Organising for Change. ” In Women Who Dared , edited by Ritu Menon , pp. 77–93. New Delhi, India: National Book Trust, 2002. Dhanda, Meena . Reservations for Women . New Delhi, India: Women Unlimited, forthcoming. Engineer, Asghar Ali , ed. The Shah Bano Controversy . Hyderabad, India: Orient Longman, 1987. Gandhi, Nandita , and Nandita Shah . The Issues at Stake: Theory and Practice in the Contemporary Women's Movement in India . New Delhi, India: Kali for Women, 1992. Gandhi,...

India

India   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
529 words

...in India. Trade with India, testified to by Kosmas Indikopleustes , took four routes: via the Euphrates and Persian Gulf to Taprobana ( Ceylon ); via the Red Sea to the Indian Ocean; by overland caravan routes via Persia; and by caravan travel north of the Caspian Sea and across Central Asia. The primary exports from India were spices, incense, and probably precious stones: “the wealth of India,” according to the Vita Basilii , decorated the chapel of St. Clement in the Great Palace. Kosmas provides some factual information about India, but from...

India

India   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
491 words

... For the Greeks, India was at the eastern extremity of the earth. According to Herodotus, Asia was inhabited only as far as India, beyond which were unknown deserts; in reaching the Indus, Alexander arrived at one of the ends of the world. This doubtless explains why, ever since Ctesias's Indica (5th c. BC), India has been the land of all marvels with fabulous plants and animals and monstrous men like the famous Cynocephali. These old traditions, brought together in the works of Pliny and Solinus, were known from the early Middle Ages . Basic texts, like...

India

India   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
516 words
Illustration(s):
1

... [Arabic, al-Hind ] The earliest Arab incursions into India were in Sind in the early 8th century. Under the early *Abbasids , mainly through the patronage of the Barmakid family, Indian sciences were translated from Sanskrit into Arabic. The rise of the *Ghaznavid dynasty facilitated major incursions into India , lasting some two centuries. It was with the Ghaznavid sultan Mahmud (r. 998–1030 ) that the incursions penetrated as far as western India , into southern Kashmir, and even to Benares. However, since there were no permanent occupations of...

India Bill

India Bill (1783)   Reference library

David Wilkinson

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
109 words

... Bill , 1783 . An abortive reform of the East India Company , drafted largely by Edmund Burke and introduced by the Fox–North coalition. Opponents expressed exaggerated fears that the patronage thus created would give the coalition a stranglehold on power. The actual cause of the bill’s defeat in the Lords in December 1783 was the resentment of George III against his ministers and the underhand pressure he brought to bear by letting it be known, via Lord Temple, that anyone voting for the bill would henceforth be treated as a personal enemy. Secret...

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