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India

Subject: History

The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growth India's vast territory can be divided into three main regions ...

India

India   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...by W. G. McIvor in 1847 , and from 1861 played a major role in the introduction of cinchona to India, and, rather more ecologically disastrously, the introduction of Australian eucalypts and acacias. Ooty had various outstations including Sim's Park at Coonoor, and is still one of the most attractive gardens in India, beautifully maintained, though devoid of plant labels and with little botanical interest beyond its magnificent trees. Bengal and north India After early experiments in Madras, the real focus of botanic garden activity shifted to the north;...

India

India   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
21 words

... . Ceramics see Tile, §II, 2 . Metalwork see Bidri Ware ; Brass, §3 . Textiles see Carpet, §II, 2 ; COtton, §2 ; Kantha embroidery...

India, Republic of

India, Republic of   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
7,051 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Mu῾izz al-Din returned to India in 1194 and led his armies down the Ganga, conquering Kannauj and Varanasi. Within a few years the whole of north India had been conquered. When Mu῾izz al-Din, who had succeeded his brother on the Ghurid throne, was murdered, his generals in India established their independence. Delhi’s strategic as well as historical advantages made it the natural capital of north India, provided that its possessor was strong enough to maintain power over the fissiparous provinces. By the mid-13th century most of India north of the Vindhya had...

India Design Mark

India Design Mark (2011)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Modern Design (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
400 words

...for the award are reviewed. All applications must have at least two out of three qualities: designed in India, made in India, or sold in India. Early I-Mark Award selections included Srinivas Kumar’s Duroware Tongue Set for Wizardry Designs ( 2012 ), gk dynamic’s VZF R15 motorcycle for Yamaha ( 2012 ), Vipul Kumar’s furniture designs for Wipro Ltd ( 2013 ), Taewan Kim’s Chevrolet Beat car for General Motors India ( 2013 ), Hemant Prabhune’s Duro DZ and Rodeo EZ motor scooters for Mahindra 2 Wheelers Ltd ( 2013 ), the Tata Motors Design Team’s ...

India Design Council

India Design Council (2009)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Modern Design (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
510 words

...design as a tool for innovation and economic competitiveness. In fact, in order to develop aspects of its plans swiftly, the India Design Council signed a memorandum of understanding with JIDPO to help the Council set up the appropriate mechanisms for evaluation of its good design award, the India Design Mark (I-Mark). The latter, a high-profile award for contemporary Indian design, was established in 2011 under the aegis of the India Design Council. The IDC also sought to foster design research and investment in design by industry; to provide advice on...

India post 1947

India post 1947   Reference library

Kazi Ashraf

The Oxford Companion to Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
515 words

... post 1947 The architectural climate of post World War II India was determined by the complex intersection of colonialism, post-colonialism, and modernity, and the debate—raging in India since the late 19th century—on what kind of a nation India wishes to be. Political independence from two hundred years of colonial rule climaxed with contending projects of establishing a home-grown ideology (Gandhi), participating in a modern, industrial culture (Nehru), and positing an Asia-centric universal ethos (Tagore). Nehru’s compelling vision, which prevailed, was...

Archaeological Survey of India

Archaeological Survey of India   Reference library

Sophie C. Gordon

The Oxford Companion to the Photograph

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
205 words

...Survey of India ( ASI ) , governmental organization, established in 1870 , dedicated to the preservation and conservation of the archaeological antiquities of India . Its first director, Major‐General Alexander Cunningham, encouraged the use of photography as a tool for recording and preserving. Significant work was produced by Cunningham's assistant J. D. Beglar ( 1845–1907 ), but Cunningham also purchased work by commercial studios and amateur photographers such as Robert Gill . Some photographs were specially commissioned, following...

East India Marine Society

East India Marine Society   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
814 words

... (Salem, 1949) J. M. Lindgren : “ ‘That Every Mariner May Possess a History of the World’: A Cabinet for the East India Marine Society of Salem, ” New England Q. , lxviii (June 1995), pp. 179–205 S. Bean : Yankee India (Salem, 2001) D. Finamore : “Displaying the Sea and Defining America: Early Exhibitions at the Salem East India Marine Society,” J. Mar. Res. (May 2002) Patricia...

Association of Designers of India

Association of Designers of India (2011)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Modern Design (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
233 words

... Association of Designers of India ( ADI ) (established 2011 ) The Association of Designers of India was formally constituted in 2011 as the first national body for professional designers in India, with the aim of providing a bridge between members, users, industry, education, and policymakers. Amongst its key objectives was the creation of an effective national network, together with representation and influence on government policymaking committees, the India Design Council , and other significant design organizations. Also important to the ADI was...

India post 1947

India post 1947  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The architectural climate of post World War II India was determined by the complex intersection of colonialism, post-colonialism, and modernity, and the debate—raging in India since the late 19th ...
Archaeological Survey of India

Archaeological Survey of India  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Governmental organization, established in 1870, dedicated to the preservation and conservation of the archaeological antiquities of India. Its first director, Major‐General Alexander Cunningham, ...
East India Marine Society

East India Marine Society  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Society founded in 1799 in Salem, MA, which organized one of the earliest museums in America and became a patron for commissioning art. Marine societies founded in port cities during ...
Humayun's Tomb

Humayun's Tomb   Reference library

Professor Attilio Petruccioli

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...Tomb Delhi, India. Built between 1560 and 1573 , this 12-hectare/30-acre garden, with a 360-m/1,080-ft quadrangle on one side, is a parterre in which the Persian motif of the chahar bagh (quadrant) is repeated in 36 smaller chahar baghs . The four central ones are occupied by the mausoleum rising on a high base. This is the first example of a tomb garden in India. The layout is composed of narrow water channels that intersect at right angles and are fed by wells outside the garden proper. The causeways are raised and pipes of clay irrigate the...

Kaempfer, Engelbert

Kaempfer, Engelbert (1651–1716)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...and botanist. After studying medicine in Cracow (Poland) and Königsberg (Russian Kaliningrad) he accompanied a Swedish diplomat travelling through Russia and Persia (Iran). Kaempfer explored in the latter for several years. In 1688 he went to India and the following year to Java, becoming the Dutch East India company's chief surgeon at Nagasaki, Japan. Despite severe restrictions on travel, he was able to make two journeys to the Emperor at Edo (Tokyo). He observed the natural and cultivated flora, collecting where possible, and published his results in ...

Bernier, François

Bernier, François (1625–88)   Reference library

Patrick Taylor

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...( 1625–88 ), French author, physician, and traveller whose vivid descriptions of what he saw in India and Kashmir in the 17th century contain precious early accounts of gardens. They were published in 1699 as Voyages contenant la description des états du Grand Mogol (Travels Containing a Description of the Estates of the Great Moghul). He saw the notable gardens of Kashmir— Achabal , Shalamar Bagh , and Vernag—and the Red Fort and Taj Mahal in India. He saw Kashmir as ‘a fertile and highly cultivated garden … meadows and vineyards, fields of rice,...

Anguri Bagh

Anguri Bagh   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...with a lattice-work of emeralds and rubies, representing vine leaves as they turn from green to red, from which the name of the garden probably derives. Professor Attilio Petruccioli S. Crowe and S. Haywood , The Gardens of Mughul India (1972). E. B. Moynihan (ed.), Paradise as a Garden in Persia and Mughal India ...

New Delhi

New Delhi   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...Delhi India. At the Delhi Durbar of 1911 it was announced that the seat of government of British India was to be transferred from Calcutta to Delhi. Edwin Lutyens and Herbert Baker ( 1862–1946 ) designed the complex of buildings, now known as New Delhi, in a style that incorporated both Western and Indian features. The Rajpath—the 3-km/1.8-mile ceremonial approach flanked by reflecting canals and lines of ashoka trees—and the garden to the west of the viceroy's house, laid out in 1917 , were inspired by the geometry of the traditional Mughal garden....

I'tima-ud-Daula

I'tima-ud-Daula   Reference library

Professor Attilio Petruccioli

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...and is a jewel of bichromatic inlaid stone, in which the motifs of the vine, flowers, and plants (including the famous cypress with climbing flowers) predominate. Professor Attilio Petruccioli S. Crowe and S. Haywood , The Gardens of Mughul India (1972). E. B. Moynihan , Paradise as a Garden in Persia and Mughal India (1979). C. M. Villiers Stuart . Gardens of the Great Mughals ...

Chasma Shahi

Chasma Shahi   Reference library

Professor Attilio Petruccioli

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...to the architecture and hydraulic works. The flower garden, mainly of lilacs, is noteworthy, and has fruit trees on the lower terrace near the entrance. Professor Attilio Petruccioli S. Crowe and S. Haywood , The Gardens of Mughul India (1972). E. B. Moynihan (ed.), Paradise as a Garden in Persia and Mughal India (1979). C. M. Villiers Stuart , Gardens of the Great Mughals ...

Wallich, Nathaniel

Wallich, Nathaniel (1786–1854)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Garden

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...1786–1854 ), Danish botanist and physician born in Copenhagen. Wallich was an Anglophile and spent time in England, coming to the notice of Sir Joseph Banks . In 1807 he joined the Danish East India Company as surgeon at Serampore. Six years later it was transferred to the British, and Wallich, on Banks's recommendation, was appointed superintendent of the East India Company's Calcutta Botanic Garden , a post he held for 26 years. Wallich botanized in the East Indies, the Himalayas, Nepal, and Burma, often using native collectors, sending vast numbers of...

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