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India

Subject: History

The world's largest democracy has a rich and diverse culture. Now, it is also achieving more rapid economic growth India's vast territory can be divided into three main regions ...

India

India   Quick reference

A Dictionary of the Bible (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion
Length:
44 words

... Although only mentioned in the Bible in the book of Esther (1: 1; 8: 9), there was regular trade between India and the countries of the Mediterranean. The Malabar Christian communities of SW India claim to have been founded by the apostle...

India

India   Quick reference

World Maps

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...India Physical map Political map Delhi Central Delhi Central Delhi Kolkata Mumbai Central Mumbai...

India

India   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
21 words

... . Ceramics see Tile, §II, 2 . Metalwork see Bidri Ware ; Brass, §3 . Textiles see Carpet, §II, 2 ; COtton, §2 ; Kantha embroidery...

India

India   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Early Modern History (1500 to 1700)
Length:
388 words

...of Christianity to the caste system of southern India. The first Dutch fleet arrived in India in 1595 and the first English fleet in 1601 . Both countries established a commercial presence in India, and within twenty years had dismantled the Portuguese monopoly. Eventually eight European East India Companies were formed (by Austria, Denmark, England, France, the Netherlands, Scotland, Spain, Sweden), all of which traded with India. The English company eventually emerged as the dominant European power in India, which it administered until the government was...

India

India   Quick reference

The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...India ( Bhārat ) , ( Hindustan ) The Republic of India (Hindi: Bhārat Gaņarājya) since 1950 after independence was achieved in 1947 when the Federal Union of India (and Dominion of India) was created. Although the English East India Company had established its first trading post on the west coast of India in 1608 , the first step in the creation of a British Empire in India was only taken as a result of the victory of Robert Clive ( 1725–74 ) at the Battle of Plassey in 1757 . At this time the Company desired no territory other than Bengal; it...

India

India   Quick reference

World Flags

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

... The Indian flag was adopted shortly after the country gained independence from Britain in 1947. The saffron (orange) represents India's Hindu people, the green stands for the Muslims, and the white symbolizes the peace between them. The central wheel is a Gandhian symbol of...

India

India   Reference library

Eric Herbert Warmington and Romila Thapar

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,049 words

...In the 2nd cent. NW India was occupied by the Graeco-Bactrian rulers ( see bactria ; demetrius (9) ii ; euthydemus (2–3) i-ii ; indo-greeks ; menander (2) ); but the rise of the Parthian empire ( see parthia ) separated India from the Greek lands, and invaders from central Asia ( c. 80–30 bc ) obliterated the Greek principalities in the Indus valley; see gandhara . In the 1st cent. ad Chinese silk reached the Roman dominions through India, but land communications with India remained irregular. The chief routes to India were (1) via Meshed and...

India

India   Reference library

Eric Herbert Warmington and Romila Thapar

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
950 words
Illustration(s):
1

...trade with India being extended eastwards by Indian traders. Nevertheless, Greek geographers always underrated the extent of India’s southward projection and exaggerated the size of Sri Lanka. From c . ad 200 direct Graeco-Roman trade declined, communications with India passed into the hands of intermediaries (Arabians, Axumites, Sasanid Persians), and India again became a land of fable to the Mediterranean world. The founders of Christian settlements in India came largely from Persia. Eric Herbert Warmington / Romila Thapar India Marble Roman...

India

India   Reference library

Nalini Natarajan

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
236 words

... . Dickens's popularity in India offers a noteworthy contrast to the lack of reference in his novels to India and the rest of the Empire, except as a backdrop to his central concern with English experience. India, along with Africa and the Caribbean, is only a convenient space to which characters are shipped off or where they can make their future ( see emigration ). In the novels, India is a land distant and exotic. It lends bogus respectability to Montague Tigg's Anglo-Bengalee Disinterested Loan and Life Assurance Company ( MC 27 et seq. ); it is...

India

India   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
349 words

... The world’s second most populous country and seventh-largest by land area. Located in mainland South Asia , historically it was home to the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. Four of the world's major religions—Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism—also originated there. From the early 18th century, large parts of India came under the control of one of the world’s largest trading companies of the era, the British East India Company. Later, it was administered directly by Britain. This period saw the transfer en masse of British and other European...

India

India   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Exploration

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History
Length:
34 words

... . See Bombay Geographical Society ; Curzon, George Nathaniel ; David-Neel, Alexandra ; Everest, George ; Exotic, Monstrous, and Wild Peoples and Animals ; Expeditions, World Exploration, subentry on England ; da Gama, Vasco ; Indian Ocean ; Pundit Mapmakers ; and ...

India

India   Reference library

Rebecca Darley

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... and Ceylon Understanding references to ‘India’ in Late Roman texts is complicated by the flexible use of this term by contemporary authors. ‘India’ might denote any region south and/or east of the Red Sea, including China , Ethiopia ( Aksum ), the Indian subcontinent, and South-East Asia. Rufinus of Aquileia ’s account in his Ecclesiastical History of the conversion of Aksum to Christianity by the brothers Frumentius and Aedesius makes this especially clear in his account of the brothers setting out on a voyage to India (= India) before being...

India

India   Reference library

David Anthony Washbrook

The Oxford Companion to British History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
467 words

...in 1757 , which made him the ‘kingmaker’ in Bengal, India’s richest province. For the next thirty years, there was some hesitancy in British circles at building on these foundations. But, during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars, the opportunity was seized and by 1818 , with the defeat of the Maratha empire, the East India Company had gained supremacy. After the Indian mutiny of 1857 , however, the company was abolished and sovereignty passed to the British crown. In the 19th cent., India was undoubtedly Britain’s most important colony. It...

India

India   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
977 words

...(Arrian Alexander 6.19–7.20; Arrian On India ). Northwest India remained in the control of Seleucus I until 301 , but thereafter the region fell under a long succession of Mauryan, Greco-Bactrian, Indo-Greek, Parthian, and central Asian rulers. The vast portion of India to the south was unfamiliar to residents of the Mediterranean, apart from the subcontinent's rich exports and the ports that flourished on the western and southeastern coasts. Although discontinuous contact between the Mediterranean and India existed in prehistory, regular trade did not...

India

India   Reference library

A. Mathias Mundadan

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,525 words

...reached India in the first century as a result of the preachings of St Thomas the Apostle. The fruits of the Medieval Western Latin Mission, which culminated in the establishment of a bishopric at Kollam (Quilon) in 1329 , did not survive. It is the Portuguese who laid the foundation for the present Latin Christianity * in India in the sixteenth century. Other missionaries built on this foundation. The Protestant form of Christianity had its debut in India with the Lutheran establishment at Tranquebar ( 1706 ). The ancient Christians of India, the St...

India

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A Dictionary of British History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
362 words

... , or Hindustan, was named by the Greeks after the Indus valley. Its dominant civilization was Hindu and Buddhist but, from the 11th cent., it was subject to conquest from the Islamic north. The most famous of its conquerors were the Mughals, who established their empire in 1526 . In the age of exploration, the first Europeans to arrive were the Portuguese who developed a sea‐borne empire centred on Goa. In the early 17th cent., the Dutch displaced the Portuguese, but India was peripheral to their principal interests in Java. The English East India...

India

India   Quick reference

World Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
Jul 2014
Subject:
Encyclopedias
Length:
1,324 words
Illustration(s):
4

...5th centuries ad N India flourished under the Gupta dynasty . The 7th century is the classical period of India's history. Islam was introduced from about ad 1000 . In 1192 , the Delhi Sultanate became India's first Muslim kingdom. In 1526 , Babur founded the Mogul empire . In the 17th century, India became a centre of Islamic art and architecture under Shah Jahan (who built the Taj Mahal ) and Aurangzeb . In the 17th century, the Maratha successfully resisted European imperial ambitions in the guise of the East India Company . European...

India

India (2010)   Reference library

Mahesh RANGARAJAN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Science and technology, Social sciences
Length:
3,574 words

... Activism, Judicial ; Agriculture (South and East Asia) ; Chennai, India ; Delhi, India ; Education, Environmental (India) ; Five-Year Plans ; Gandhism ; Ganges River ; The Himalaya ; Indigenous Peoples ; Mumbai, India ; Parks and Preserves ; Reforestation and Afforestation (Southeast Asia) ; Religions ; Traditional Knowledge (India) ; Water Use and Rights (India) ; White Revolution of India This article was adapted by the editors from Mahesh Rangarajan’s article “India” in Shepard Krech III, J. R. McNeill, and Carolyn Merchant (Eds.), ...

India

India   Reference library

Rebecca Darley and István Perczel

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

... and south Asia , Christianity in A settled Christian presence in south India , with some spread to Sri Lanka (Ceylon) and further east, is securely attested from the 6th century , but communities had probably existed in India from at least the 4th century . Modern communities, concentrated in Kerala (South India) and called S. Thomas, Syrian, or Māppiḷa Christians, claim a 1st-century conversion by S. Thomas, though the Acts of Thomas ( ATh ) are concerned mainly with areas further north. The Acts , composed wholly or partially in the 3rd...

India

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A Guide to Countries of the World (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Encyclopedias, Geographical reference, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,835 words
Illustration(s):
2

...has also been a boom in consumer electronics and computers. The latter can take advantage of India’s large pool of computer programmers, especially in Bangalore, India’s ‘cybercity’. India’s English-speaking graduates also staff many call centres for companies in the USA and Europe and perform many other ‘outsourced’ functions. Software and computer services now account for around one-quarter of exports. These developments have been transforming the face of India’s cities. TV programming has now been opened up to a multitude of satellite channels. Life in...

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