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Grigori Zinoviev

(b. 11 Sept. 1883, d. 25 Aug. 1936). Soviet politician Born Radomyslsky Apfelbaum in Elizavetgrad, he joined the Russian Social Democratic Party in 1901 and supported the ...

Grigori Zinoviev

Grigori Zinoviev  

(b. 11 Sept. 1883, d. 25 Aug. 1936).Soviet politician Born Radomyslsky Apfelbaum in Elizavetgrad, he joined the Russian Social Democratic Party in 1901 and supported the Bolshevik faction in 1903, ...
Zinoviev letter

Zinoviev letter  

A letter published in the press in 1924 as having been sent by the Soviet politician Grigori Zinoviev (1883–1936) to British Communists, inciting them to subversion; it was later discovered to be a ...
Yevgeny Aleksandrovich Preobrazhensky

Yevgeny Aleksandrovich Preobrazhensky  

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(b. Bolkhoz, Central Russia, 1886; d. 1937)Russian; ‘Old Bolshevik’ and political theorist Preobrazhensky was the son of an Orthodox priest, and was a revolutionary sympathizer by the time he left ...
Lev Borisovich Kamenev

Lev Borisovich Kamenev  

(22 July 1883, d. 25 Aug. 1936).Soviet politicianBorn Lev Borisovich Rosenfeld in Moscow, he was forced to abandon his law degree at Moscow University in 1902 owing to his political activities. He ...
Andrei Yanuarovich Vyshinsky

Andrei Yanuarovich Vyshinsky  

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(b. Odessa, 11 Dec. 1883; d. New York, 22 Nov. 1954)Russian; Chief Procurator of the USSR 1935–9, Minister of Foreign Affairs 1949–53 Vyshinsky was of Polish extraction, the son of middle-class ...
Great Purge

Great Purge  

(1936–8,USSR)After coming to power in 1924 against Lenin's wishes, Stalin confirmed his position as leader of the Communist Party and the Soviet Union by using terror against his opponents, through ...
Comintern

Comintern  

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(Communist International)Organization of national communist parties for the propagation of communist doctrine with the aim of bringing about a world revolution. It was established by Lenin (1919) in ...
Nikolai Ivanovich Yezhov

Nikolai Ivanovich Yezhov  

(b. 1895, d. 1939?).Head of Soviet Secret Police Born in St Petersburg, he joined the Bolsheviks in April 1917 and took part in the Russian (October) Revolution of 1917. During the Russian Civil War, ...
Sergei Mironovich Kirov

Sergei Mironovich Kirov  

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(b. 27 Mar. 1886, d. 1 Dec. 1934).Russian Communist revolutionaryBorn in Urzhum in the Vyatka province, he moved to St Petersburg, where he became an effective Bolshevik organizer in the Russian ...
Leon Trotsky

Leon Trotsky  

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1879–1940)Russian revolutionary leader who, from the October Revolution to the death of Lenin, was the second most powerful man in the Soviet Union. He lost ground to Stalin after Lenin's death and ...
Bolshevism

Bolshevism  

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Political theory and practice of the Bolshevik Party which, under Lenin, came to power during the Russian Revolution of October 1917. The Bolshevik (meaning ‘majority’) radical communist faction ...
Joseph Stalin

Joseph Stalin  

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(born Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (1879–1953) Soviet statesman, General Secretary of the Communist Party of the USSR (1922–53). Born in Georgia, he joined the Bolsheviks under Lenin in 1903 ...

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