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Linguistics

Linguistics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
13,561 words
Illustration(s):
11

...of bars or superscripts (e.g., X 0 , X 1 , X 2 , X 3 …). To date, there is no consensus as to the exact number of intermediate levels. Every phrase has a head and every head of the next level of division belongs to the same lexical or functional category, a fact that is captured by the following general rule: X n → … X n-1 …. Phrases that cannot be further expanded are called maximal projections (X max , e.g., noun phrase). Phrases can contain a specifier (one level below X max ), complements (one level above X 0 ). X 0 -elements are lexical categories...

Millennium

Millennium   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...January 2001 , having made a heavy financial loss and proved something of an embarrassment to Tony Blair and the New Labour government who had supported it. It was widely perceived as a white elephant . In 2003 permission was granted to turn it into a 20,000-seater arena, which opened in 2007 . In 2005 the telecommunications company O 2 (now Telefónica O 2 Europe plc) assumed sponsorship of it and it was officially renamed ‘The O 2...

Private

Private   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...number of these expressions, such as ‘technicolor yawn’, meaning vomiting, and ‘strain the potatoes’, meaning to urinate, were popularized by two films based on the strip, The Adventures of Barry McKenzie ( 1972 ) and Barry McKenzie Holds His Own ( 1974 ). Birtspeak Birtspeak 2.0 is a column which gives examples of convoluted and impenetrable jargon from the corporate world. It is named after John Birt ( b.1944 ), former Director-General of the BBC, who was noted for this kind of language, and the column is accompanied by a cartoon drawing of a dalek ,...

number representation

number representation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Semiotics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
3,295 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the latter's value ten times. This was the task of the sign 0 . Western Europeans were still in the additive stage with their Roman numerals when confronted by the Indo‐Arabic figures. “How can something which itself designates nothing multiply by ten the value of the figure to which it is attached?” they argued, not distinguishing between sign and signified and between isolated value and positional value. This semiotic confusion had repercussions in the business world, and some city governments, like that of Florence in 1299 , forbade the use of the...

Print and Printing

Print and Printing   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
1,234 words

...systems for typesetting. In the 20c, there was a pronounced shift towards general literacy and a vast provision of printed materials throughout the world and in particular throughout the English-speaking world. Developments in digital technology, including the internet ; web 2.0 , and new file formats, especially PDF (portable document format) and hypertext , have radically changed the print industry. Nature and impact A printed book not only involves a different technology from a manuscript, but results in a different product. Whereas manuscripts were copied...

Canadian English

Canadian English   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
3,365 words

...change and accommodation are possible. In the province of Québec, according to census data from 2013 , 78.1% of the population are Francophone, 12.3% have neither French or English as a first language ( see allophone ), 7.7% are Anglophone, 0.6% have an Aboriginal language as their first language, and 2% of the population list two or more languages as their first language. See dialect in canada ; newfoundland english ; ottawa valley ; southern ontario . Canadian Place-Names The place-names of Canada reflect mixed linguistic origins over some 400...

domino

domino noun & interjection   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of Foreign Terms in English

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
223 words

...but unexplained). A noun plural domino(e)s . 1 L17 A garment worn to cover the head and shoulders; specifically a loose cloak with a mask for the upper part of the face, worn to conceal the identity at masquerades, etc. 2 M18 A person wearing a domino. 3 L18 Each of a set of small oblong pieces, usually 28 in number and marked with 0 to 6 dots in each half, used in various matching and trick-taking games; in plural (treated as singular ) or singular , the game played with such pieces. 4 M19 Paper printed with a design from a woodblock and colored, used...

Eureka Stockade

Eureka Stockade   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Irish Phrase & Fable

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...miners – mainly Irish, but also including Americans, Canadians and Italians and two Australian-born – who refused to pay a government licence fee that they considered unjust. (Gold was first discovered in Ballarat in 1851 and during the decade that followed it enticed about 84,000 Irish emigrants to this area.) In the early hours of Sunday 3 December 1854 government forces attacked and captured the stockade – an area of about one acre (0.4 ha), roughly enclosed with slabs and carts, taking the defenders by surprise as they did not believe they would be...

forbid > forbade > forbidden

forbid > forbade > forbidden   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
705 words

...: Stage 2 Current ratio ( he forbade it vs. ✳he forbid it ): 6:1 2. forbade mispronounced /fәr- bayd / : Stage 4 3. forbade misspelled ✳forebade : Stage 1 Current ratio: 563:1 B. Preposition with. In formal contexts, forbid traditionally takes the preposition to or, less formally, from . H.W. Fowler stated that forbid from doing is unidiomatic ( FMEU1 at 186), but it is increasingly common. In fact, it is probably more common today than forbid to do , but both forms appear frequently—e.g.: • “In exchange, the Government prohibits...

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