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Classical Generative Morphology

Classical Generative Morphology   Reference library

Pius ten Hacken

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Morphology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Linguistics, Language reference
Length:
7,934 words
Illustration(s):
24

...In R. A. Jacobs & P. S. Rosenbaum (Eds.), Readings in English transformational grammar (pp. 184–221). Waltham, MA: Ginn. Chomsky, N. (1981). Lectures on government and binding . Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Foris. Chomsky, N. , & Halle, M. (1968). The sound pattern of English . New York, NY: Harper & Row. Corbin, D. (1987). Morphologie dérivationnelle et structuration du lexique . 2 vols. Tübingen, Germany: Niemeyer. Di Sciullo, A. M. , & Williams, E. (1987). On the definition of word . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Everaert, M. , Evers, A....

The Status of Heads in Morphology

The Status of Heads in Morphology   Reference library

Beata Moskal and Peter W. Smith

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Morphology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Linguistics, Language reference
Length:
11,508 words
Illustration(s):
46

...In (5), X serves as a variable. In X’-Theory, syntactic phrases receive the label NP, DP, VP, PP, and so forth, depending on what the head of the element is. Thus, the head of an NP is N 0 , the head of VP V 0 , and so on. Importantly, there is a general schema for syntactic phrases, and the label of the variable X is percolated up through the tree, as an element of category X 0 is in the head position. (6) Percolation then simply refers to the ability of features to move through the tree: features on nodes are inherited from the structure that the nodes dominate...

Bracketing Paradoxes in Morphology

Bracketing Paradoxes in Morphology   Reference library

Heather Newell

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Morphology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Linguistics, Language reference
Length:
11,247 words
Illustration(s):
40

...classes, some of which are X 0 s and some of which are XPs. The structure here is not meant to distinguish between these options. For a discussion of the issue see Luedeling ( 2001 ) . 11. ‘Root’ in ‘non root-node’ in the sense of the top node of the tree structure, as opposed to the category-less ‘root’ morpheme proposed in Distributed Morphology. 12. Guerssel ( 1986 ) also proposes that the prefixes in bracketing paradoxes are spelled out before merger to the stem. For him this distinction is lexical; Level 2 affixes are ‘word affixes’, and...

Defectiveness in Morphology

Defectiveness in Morphology   Reference library

Antonio Fábregas

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Morphology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Linguistics, Language reference
Length:
8,065 words
Illustration(s):
28

...doubt that a form is defective. She discusses the example of the English verb forego , which is classified as defective in its past tense (* foregoed , * forewent ). However, in Google searches both forms are attested. Importantly, the past tense forms of the verb constitute only 0.2% of all the attestations of the lexeme forego , which is much less than with a ‘normal’ verb (Sims estimates as 5% the average proportion of use of a past verb in English). In this view, what defines a gap is not the absolute number of attestations but the deviation from the...

Network Morphology

Network Morphology   Reference library

Andrew Hippisley

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Morphology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Linguistics, Language reference
Length:
6,790 words
Illustration(s):
48

...that ultimately address the question: what is a possible morphological word? To illustrate, consider the paradigms in (2)–(4) of three nouns in Lower Sorbian, a West Slavonic language spoken in Germany in the surrounding areas of Cottbus, Brandenburg (see, e.g., Stone, 1993 ). Each noun in (2)–(4) is representative of an inflectional class that can be represented as a node in an inheritance hierarchy ( Starosta, 1999 , pp. 23, 27). (2) (3) (4) Among the three classes there is multiple sharing of exponents in two ways. Classes may share an exponent for...

Linguistics

Linguistics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
13,561 words
Illustration(s):
11

...of bars or superscripts (e.g., X 0 , X 1 , X 2 , X 3 …). To date, there is no consensus as to the exact number of intermediate levels. Every phrase has a head and every head of the next level of division belongs to the same lexical or functional category, a fact that is captured by the following general rule: X n → … X n-1 …. Phrases that cannot be further expanded are called maximal projections (X max , e.g., noun phrase). Phrases can contain a specifier (one level below X max ), complements (one level above X 0 ). X 0 -elements are lexical categories...

Denominal Verbs in Morphology

Denominal Verbs in Morphology   Reference library

Heike Baeskow

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Morphology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Linguistics, Language reference
Length:
11,220 words
Illustration(s):
26

...the matrix verb of a pre-syntactic Lexical Relational Structure (LRS) that is projected by a hypothetical preposition. Incorporation is a special kind of head movement and thus adheres to the Head Movement Constraint ( Travis, 1984 ), according to which a head X 0 may only move into the Y 0 that properly governs it. Significantly, the base nouns are generated as complements of a phonologically empty preposition P that corresponds to the overt locational prepositions on , in , at in the case of location verbs ( John put the books on the shelf ) and ...

Person in Morphology

Person in Morphology   Reference library

Michael Daniel

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Morphology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Linguistics, Language reference
Length:
23,519 words
Illustration(s):
22

...Anthropology. Bickel, B. , & Nichols, J. (2007). Inflectional morphology. In T. Shopen (Ed.), Language typology and syntactic description (2nd ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Bickel, B. , Nichols, J. , Zakharko, T. , Witzlack-Makarevich, A. , Hildebrandt, K. , Rießler, M. , Bierkandt, L. , Zúñiga, F. , & Lowe, J. B. (2017). The AUTOTYP typological databases . Version 0.1.0. Bloomfield, L. (1957). Eastern Ojibwa: Grammatical Sketch, Texts and Word List . Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Bobaljik, J. (2008)....

Overabundance in Morphology

Overabundance in Morphology   Reference library

Anna M. Thornton

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Morphology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2021
Subject:
Linguistics, Language reference
Length:
12,521 words
Illustration(s):
15

...as exemplified in Table 2 ; in this case, only half of the spectrum can be used, because ratios have been assessed for single pairs of cellmates, that represent cases of isolated or almost isolated overabundance in their respective paradigms, not for a large number of forms that have parallel differences between two cellmates, as in the Czech example. Table 2. Frequency Ratios and Proportions of Some Italian Overabundant Verb Forms ( 1sg.prs.ind). Gloss Form 1 Frequency of form 1 Form 2 Frequency of form 2 Ratio form 1: form 2 % of the less frequent item...

Millennium

Millennium   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...January 2001 , having made a heavy financial loss and proved something of an embarrassment to Tony Blair and the New Labour government who had supported it. It was widely perceived as a white elephant . In 2003 permission was granted to turn it into a 20,000-seater arena, which opened in 2007 . In 2005 the telecommunications company O 2 (now Telefónica O 2 Europe plc) assumed sponsorship of it and it was officially renamed ‘The O 2...

Private

Private   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase & Fable (19 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...number of these expressions, such as ‘technicolor yawn’, meaning vomiting, and ‘strain the potatoes’, meaning to urinate, were popularized by two films based on the strip, The Adventures of Barry McKenzie ( 1972 ) and Barry McKenzie Holds His Own ( 1974 ). Birtspeak Birtspeak 2.0 is a column which gives examples of convoluted and impenetrable jargon from the corporate world. It is named after John Birt ( b.1944 ), former Director-General of the BBC, who was noted for this kind of language, and the column is accompanied by a cartoon drawing of a dalek ,...

number representation

number representation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Semiotics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Language reference, Linguistics
Length:
3,295 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the latter's value ten times. This was the task of the sign 0 . Western Europeans were still in the additive stage with their Roman numerals when confronted by the Indo‐Arabic figures. “How can something which itself designates nothing multiply by ten the value of the figure to which it is attached?” they argued, not distinguishing between sign and signified and between isolated value and positional value. This semiotic confusion had repercussions in the business world, and some city governments, like that of Florence in 1299 , forbade the use of the...

Print and Printing

Print and Printing   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
1,234 words

...systems for typesetting. In the 20c, there was a pronounced shift towards general literacy and a vast provision of printed materials throughout the world and in particular throughout the English-speaking world. Developments in digital technology, including the internet ; web 2.0 , and new file formats, especially PDF (portable document format) and hypertext , have radically changed the print industry. Nature and impact A printed book not only involves a different technology from a manuscript, but results in a different product. Whereas manuscripts were copied...

Canadian English

Canadian English   Quick reference

The Oxford Companion to the English Language (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Language reference, History of English, Linguistics
Length:
3,365 words

...change and accommodation are possible. In the province of Québec, according to census data from 2013 , 78.1% of the population are Francophone, 12.3% have neither French or English as a first language ( see allophone ), 7.7% are Anglophone, 0.6% have an Aboriginal language as their first language, and 2% of the population list two or more languages as their first language. See dialect in canada ; newfoundland english ; ottawa valley ; southern ontario . Canadian Place-Names The place-names of Canada reflect mixed linguistic origins over some 400...

domino

domino noun & interjection   Reference library

The Oxford Essential Dictionary of Foreign Terms in English

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Language reference
Length:
223 words

...but unexplained). A noun plural domino(e)s . 1 L17 A garment worn to cover the head and shoulders; specifically a loose cloak with a mask for the upper part of the face, worn to conceal the identity at masquerades, etc. 2 M18 A person wearing a domino. 3 L18 Each of a set of small oblong pieces, usually 28 in number and marked with 0 to 6 dots in each half, used in various matching and trick-taking games; in plural (treated as singular ) or singular , the game played with such pieces. 4 M19 Paper printed with a design from a woodblock and colored, used...

Eureka Stockade

Eureka Stockade   Reference library

Brewer's Dictionary of Irish Phrase & Fable

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...miners – mainly Irish, but also including Americans, Canadians and Italians and two Australian-born – who refused to pay a government licence fee that they considered unjust. (Gold was first discovered in Ballarat in 1851 and during the decade that followed it enticed about 84,000 Irish emigrants to this area.) In the early hours of Sunday 3 December 1854 government forces attacked and captured the stockade – an area of about one acre (0.4 ha), roughly enclosed with slabs and carts, taking the defenders by surprise as they did not believe they would be...

forbid > forbade > forbidden

forbid > forbade > forbidden   Reference library

Garner’s Modern English Usage (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Language reference, Usage and Grammar Guides
Length:
705 words

...: Stage 2 Current ratio ( he forbade it vs. ✳he forbid it ): 6:1 2. forbade mispronounced /fәr- bayd / : Stage 4 3. forbade misspelled ✳forebade : Stage 1 Current ratio: 563:1 B. Preposition with. In formal contexts, forbid traditionally takes the preposition to or, less formally, from . H.W. Fowler stated that forbid from doing is unidiomatic ( FMEU1 at 186), but it is increasingly common. In fact, it is probably more common today than forbid to do , but both forms appear frequently—e.g.: • “In exchange, the Government prohibits...

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