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Gambling in Sport and Performance Psychology

Gambling in Sport and Performance Psychology   Reference library

Loredana A. Marchica and Jeffrey L. Derevensky

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...shown that adolescents and emerging adults have prevalence rates of GD at least three times higher than adults. Recent studies have shown adult worldwide prevalence rates to be at 0.1–5.8% meeting past year diagnostic criteria and 0.7–6.5% meeting lifetime diagnostic criteria ( Calado & Griffiths, 2016 ), while adolescent prevalence rates have been estimated at 0.2–12.3% worldwide ( Calado, Alexandre, & Griffiths, 2017 ). A number of researchers have argued that the growth of sports wagering and the increased accessibility of online sports wagering has...

Longitudinal Structural Equation Modeling in Lifespan Developmental Analyses

Longitudinal Structural Equation Modeling in Lifespan Developmental Analyses   Reference library

Philip Parker and Robert Brockman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology and Aging

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology
Length:
7,990 words
Illustration(s):
7

...as level 2. The equation for the basic multilevel model starts with: (Level 1) (Level 2) Here, we represent level 1 coefficients by , while each coefficient for the intercepts is subscripted as 0, 1, 2, and so forth. In this model, for outcome y there are i level 1 entries nested within j individuals (level 2). Level 1 observations are modeled as a function of the mean intercept for each individual ( ) and the deviation of each observation within a person to the mean for that person ( ) ( Nezlek, 2011 ). We represent level 2 coefficients...

Aging Societies and the Ethical Challenges of Long Life

Aging Societies and the Ethical Challenges of Long Life   Reference library

Allison R. Heid and Steven H. Zarit

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology and Aging

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology
Length:
18,677 words

...Meyers, 2007 ); however, the reality is more complex. Poverty rates among older people in the United States have declined dramatically since 1935 , following the onset of the government-sponsored pension program, Social Security. Yet 10% of older Americans currently live below the poverty line, which is only slightly lower than younger age groups (12% of those aged 19 to 64; 20% for 0 to 18; Kaiser Family Foundation, 2017a ; Reno & Veghte, 2011 ). Furthermore, an additional 24% of older people fall within 200% of the poverty threshold using standard...

Supervision in Exercise Settings

Supervision in Exercise Settings   Reference library

Sam Zizzi and Jana L. Fogaca

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...interventions. Shadow supervisor and/or level 2 or 3 trainee. Self-/other awareness: Self-focus with limited self-awareness; anxiety Provide support and structure to decrease anxiety: regular frequent meetings, regular review of case notes and videos. Reflective practice. Assign lower-risk, healthier clients Build empathy and awareness by: Walking on a treadmill for 20 minutes at 3.0 to help understand the client’s fitness level. Tracking food intake and exercise output for several weeks Level 2 Motivation: Fluctuating motivation and confidence...

HIV/AIDS in Later Life

HIV/AIDS in Later Life   Reference library

Philip Sayegh, David J. Moore, and Pariya Fazeli Wheeler

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology and Aging

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology
Length:
11,588 words

...An, Chen, and Hall ( 2012 ) . Results revealed significantly higher average annual rates (per 100,000 individuals) of HIV diagnosis among older African American (12.6) adults, followed by older Latino adults (5.0), as compared to non-Latino Whites; these rates were more pronounced than among younger adults (African Americans: 7.7; Latinos: 2.9). Linley and colleagues posited that stigma, barriers to obtaining HIV testing, and reduced cognizance of HIV risk among older adults may be augmented by socioeconomic and cultural factors that lead to racial/ethnic...

Methodology for Twin Studies of Aging

Methodology for Twin Studies of Aging   Reference library

Michael J. Lyons, Chandra A. Reynolds, William S. Kremen, and Carol E. Franz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology and Aging

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology
Length:
11,938 words
Illustration(s):
10

...L. J. (1993). Estimating and controlling for the effects of volunteer bias with pairs of relatives . Behavior Genetics , 23 , 271–277. Neale, M. C. , Hunter, M. D. , Pritikin, J. N. , Zahery, M. , Brick, T. R. , Kirkpatrick, R. M. , … Boker, S. M. (2016). OpenMx 2.0: Extended structural equation and statistical Pmodeling . Psychometrika , 81 , 535–549. Neale, M. C. , Roysamb, E. , & Jacobson, K. (2006). Multivariate genetic analysis of sex limitation and G x E interaction . Twin Research and Human Genetics , 9 , 481–489. Newsom, J...

Social Participation and Volunteering in Later Life

Social Participation and Volunteering in Later Life   Reference library

Nancy Morrow-Howell, Yi Wang, and Takashi Amano

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology and Aging

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology
Length:
14,656 words

...social participation among older adults. The Brief Assessment of Social Engagement scale ( Morgan, Dallosso, & Ebrahim, 1985 ) is a 20-item activity scale, with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.70 in the original study. Respondents indicate if they participate or not in each activity, and the score is the number of activities in which the respondent participates (range from 0 to 20). The Maastricht Social Participation Profile (MSPP) was developed to measure social participation by older adults with chronic physical illness ( Mars et al., 2009 ). It consists of...

Critical Role of Social–Cognitive Age Representations

Critical Role of Social–Cognitive Age Representations   Reference library

Alison Chasteen, Maria Iankilevitch, Jordana Schiralli, and Veronica Bergstrom

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology and Aging

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology
Length:
9,817 words

...and active and to have high incomes and hold senior positions in their careers ( North & Fiske, 2013b ). The second domain, consumption , refers to older adults’ use of resources that are shared in society. For instance, Social Security and Medicare in the United States are government funds paid for by young and middle-aged adults who plan to use these funds themselves in old age. When concerns about depletion of these funds arise (e.g., Saletta, 2017 ), older adults may be viewed as overconsuming their fair share of resources, and young adults may fear...

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