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Pakistan

Pakistan  

Asia's great underachiever. Democracy has yet to take hold and now the country is under attack from terrorists.Pakistan has four main geographical regions. First, in the far north is the Hindu Kush ...
India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, Christianity in

India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, Christianity in   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,262 words

...was preserved when Pakistan became an Islamic republic in 1956 , since 1969 the government has exercised increasing control over Christian institutions and the activities of foreign missionaries, and Christians have felt their position to be threatened. While the census figures provide no recent information, in 1972 Christians formed c. 1.5 per cent of the population and it is unlikely that the proportion has increased. In Bangladesh in the 1980s they formed c. 0.25 per cent of the population. Introductory surveys by P. Thomas , Christians and Christianity...

Ireland, Christianity in

Ireland, Christianity in   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 rev. ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion
Length:
3,327 words

...a potent factor in the strength of the Free Presbyterian Church, founded by the Revd Ian Paisley in 1951 . According to the 2002 census, 87.5 per cent of the population of the Republic professed to be RC, 2.95 per cent Church of Ireland, and 0.53 per cent Presbyterian; in Northern Ireland 40.2 per cent to be RC, 20.6 per cent Presbyterian, and 15.2 per cent Church of Ireland, but it has been widely suggested that these figures do not give a true picture. Nearly all Churches have suffered lapses in membership in recent years and are being challenged by...

Dead Sea Scrolls

Dead Sea Scrolls   Reference library

Ken M. Penner

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
12,815 words
Illustration(s):
4

...Psalms 34–36 Deuteronomy 30–32 Isaiah 21 Genesis 20–21 Exodus 16 Leviticus 12–13 Daniel 8 Twelve Prophets 8 Numbers 6–7 Jeremiah 6 Ezekiel 6 Ruth 4 Lamentations 4 Judges 4 1–2 Samuel 4 Proverbs 4 Job 4 Song of Songs 4 Joshua 3 1–2 Kings 3 Ecclesiastes 2 Ezra 1 Nehemiah 1 1–2 Chronicles 1 Esther 0 In each cave: Cave Biblical manuscripts 1 16–17 2 16–17 3 3 4 148–149 5 7 6 6–9 7 0 8 2 9 0 10 0 11 8–9 According to the above numbers, there are 211–218 biblical manuscripts, about 23 percent of the total manuscript count. Clearly some books of the Hebrew Bible were...

Daniel and Additions to Daniel

Daniel and Additions to Daniel   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Religion
Length:
9,031 words
Illustration(s):
3

...of authority within the government. Moreover, the focus of attention is on life in the pagan court; Jerusalem is only briefly mentioned ( 6:10 [ Heb 6:11 ]). The atmosphere and concerns of these narratives hardly seem to fit the context of Jerusalem during the persecution and revolt of the mid-second century. Today, the scholarly consensus is that the narratives in chapters 1–6 reflect the situation of Jews in the eastern Diaspora at a period preceding the Antiochene crisis. The latest historical allusion in this part of the book ( 2:43 ) refers to...

Fertility and Secularization

Fertility and Secularization   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
1,892 words

...of Children is 3 or More Religious Preference: Protestant 43.2% 47.2% Catholic 50.8% 48.8% Jewish 47.0% 28.8% None 32.7% 39.4% Attend Religious Services: More than Once a Week 57.6% 52.8% Never 34.7% 41.3% The first column of figures is based on the question, “What do you think is the ideal number of children for a family to have?” Out of 25,385 people who answered this question, the largest number, 52.1 percent, said “two.” A fertility rate of two children per woman is just slightly less than the 2.1 children generally required to sustain the population from...

Technology and Applied Sciences

Technology and Applied Sciences   Reference library

Hassan Radoine and Aaron Segal

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Science, and Technology in Islam

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Science and technology
Length:
2,516 words

...especially in the Gulf countries, investment in science and technology is very low compared with the global average. According to the World Bank’s development indicators, from 1996 to 2003 Muslim countries spent on average less than 0.4 percent of their gross national product on research, in comparison with a world average of 2.3 percent. This statistic reflects a huge gap to be bridged, an undertaking requiring deliberate, long-term policies. The problem is systemic, and quite important: The ability of Islamic countries to catch up to the West in science and...

Mali, Republic of

Mali, Republic of   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
2,075 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the French and transformed into a “Neo-Sudanese” style, which was first used in a fort (destr.) built in Ségou by Léon Underberg ( d. 1891 ), the first commander of the city after conquest, in 1891–2 on the ruins of the palace of Ahmadou Tall ( r. 1861–90 ), king of the Tukulor Empire of Ségou. Later examples of the style can be seen in the colonial government offices of Bamako and Ségou, and in the Red Market, Bamako. The Friday Mosque ( 1906–7 ), Djenné, by Ismaila Traoré, may not be as attractive or elegant as many of the small village mosques of the 19th...

Ecosophy T

Ecosophy T   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
3,261 words

...be considered a T0 uttered by a (second) person P, a point of departure formulation. We may immediately ask P whether T0 is to be considered a human assertion, and if so, whether what is said is meant to be interpreted as a human assertion and therefore as fallible. It is likely that P will answer that he is not fallible when uttering T0. Compare the sentence sometimes said to have been uttered by Socrates that he knows nothing. In general, I use the signs “T1” and “T2” for two conflicting interpretations of T0. But the sentences T1 and T2 may be considered...

Jezreel

Jezreel   Reference library

Norma Franklin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
3,699 words

...number of the modern houses is, perhaps, 20 or 30 in all. ( The Survey of Western Palestine , vol. 2 [London: Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund, 1882 ], p. 88) The wealthy Sursock family of Beirut owned most of the land north and east of Zerin. In 1882 , wishing to increase the value of their land in order to sell it at a profit, they proposed the construction of a railway linking Haifa with cities east of the Jordan River. The Ottoman government eventually built the valley railway, and its first five stations opened in 1904 . The station nearest...

Economy, Bronze and Iron Age

Economy, Bronze and Iron Age   Reference library

Hayah Katz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
6,244 words

...by and weighing, on average, 0.4 ounces (11.33 grams). Additional units were multiples based on 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, and 40. The importance of the shekel is evident from its frequent appearance in the biblical text ( Gen 23:16 , Exod 38:29 , 1 Sam 9:8 , Ezek 45:12 ). At times, only the numerical amount of silver is mentioned and the word “shekel” is omitted, presumably because it was self-evident that the unit of weight was the shekel and there was no need to state it (for example, Gen 20:16 , 2 Kgs 6:25 , Hos 3:2 , Zech 11:12 ). Because a...

Oil painting

Oil painting   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
2,435 words
Illustration(s):
2

...of book illustration ( see Illustration , §VI, D ) and mural painting ( see Architecture , §X, C, 2 ), at least from Bellini's time, an indigenous Turkish tradition of oil painting began only in the early 19th century. At that time the military academies of Istanbul started to teach linear perspective as an adjunct to producing images for military operations, and oil painting seems to have accompanied perspective, almost as an afterthought. A government-sponsored program of educating Ottoman artists in France ensued, and by the time of the Second Empire...

Giles of                 Rome

Giles of Rome (c.1245–1316)   Reference library

Eric L. Saak

The Oxford Guide to the Historical Reception of Augustine

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion
Length:
2,039 words

... C. Luna (ed.), Reportatio lecturae super libros I–IV Sententiarum. Reportatio monacensis excerpta Godefridi de Fontibus , Aegidii Romani Opera Omnia 3/2 (Florence 2003). R. W. Dyson , Giles of Rome's On Ecclesiastical Power. A Medieval Theory of World Government . A Critical Edition and Translation (New York 2004). Secondary literature ...

Tell en-Naṣbeh

Tell en-Naṣbeh   Reference library

Jeffrey R. Zorn

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
6,297 words

...from this period at this site from stratum 2. The layout of stratum 2 was quite different from the cramped conditions of stratum 3. The architecture of stratum 2 reflects the site’s change in function, from fortified rural border town to minor administrative center under the Babylonians, in which many of the inhabitants would have been functionaries of the government and their dependents. The houses are consistently of the four-room type; are about twice the size of the dwellings of stratum 3, at 1,432 ft 2 (133 m 2 ); are more spread out; usually do not share...

Samarra

Samarra   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
2,509 words
Illustration(s):
2

...chamber and four iwans arranged in a cross. The iwan, excavated by Herzfeld in 1911 , has walls adorned with tall niches and Style C stuccos. The cantonment known as al-Istabulat (1i) lies on the west bank. It has a rectangular palace on the Tigris and a second walled rectangle (2.5×0.5 km) containing a partly finished cantonment. Identified probably as al-῾Arus (“the Bride”), it is certainly one of the 19 palaces al-Mutawakkil is credited with building. In 859 al-Mutawakkil began to lay out al-Mutawakkiliyya (1j), a new city to the north of Samarra bordering...

Pakistan

Pakistan   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
5,523 words
Illustration(s):
1

...history of legislation in regard to the protection and preservation of the cultural property of Pakistan covers a period of over one and one-half centuries, during which several government circulars, acts and statutes were issued and enacted. The first were the Bengal Regulation XIX of 1810 and the Madras Regulation VII of 1817 . In 1863 an act was passed to enable the government to divest itself of the management of religious endowments. The Treasure Trove Act of 1878 was enacted to control and administer antiquities unearthed in the course of...

Ramat Rahel

Ramat Rahel   Reference library

Oded Lipschits

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,252 words

...the Persian and early Hellenistic periods the palace at Ramat Rahel was used in an administrative/governmental capacity for collecting wine and oil jars in Judah, probably as a levy. The renewed excavations exposed the remains of a large, sturdy building, shedding new light on Persian-period Ramat Rahel. Located on the northwestern side of the second-phase palace complex, it was a rectangular structure that covered an area of about 6,458.3 ft 2 (600 m 2 , about 65.6 by 98.4 ft [20 by 30 m]) and served as a northward expansion of the fortress tower...

Malaysia

Malaysia   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
10,223 words
Illustration(s):
2

... (Kuala Lumpur, 1993) IV. Sculpture . About 90 km southwest of Kuala Lumpur is a group of menhirs on the site of the Keramat Sungai Udang (Saint of Prawn) River that are of a high order of aesthetic plasticity. The Sword Stone (2.52×0.66×0.32 m) has a stylized human form and the word “Allah” carved in relief. The Rudder Stone (1.89×1.12×0.38 m) bears a landscape in low relief with mythical animals in curvilinear form echoing the elegant shape of the stone. Nearby is a square-sectioned sandstone pillar that marks the grave of Shaykh Ahmad Mokhtar Ramli Ibni Marfu...

Beersheba

Beersheba   Reference library

Gunnar Lehmann

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
5,352 words

...were rebuilt in stratum II. Upon entering the settlement, pack animals could be unpacked on the small plaza and the goods carried a few meters to the storage buildings. The central hall had a width of 6.6 ft (2 m), while the two flanking halls were 8.2 ft (2.5 m) wide. Cobblestone floors in the flanking halls were sunk ca. 1.3 ft (ca. 0.4 m) below the level of the street and below the floor of the central hall, which was made of beaten earth. In the case of Tel Sheba ʾ stratum II the finds proved that the buildings were storage houses and not stables....

Hazor

Hazor   Reference library

Sharon Zuckerman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Archaeology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Archaeology, Religion
Length:
6,538 words
Illustration(s):
1

...minor modifications. Several residences, mostly of the four-room type, were built to the west and south of the administrative quarter, encroaching open public spaces. The best example, Building 2a, was built in this phase. The urban plan and internal organization of Hazor during the ninth century b.c.e. attests to its role as a major administrative and governmental center within the system of the Northern Kingdom of Israel. The popular four-room house plan embodied social, economic, cognitive, and cosmological concepts characterizing Iron-Age Israelite...

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