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Gaston Baty

(b. Pelussin, France, 26 May 1885; d. Pelussin, 13 Oct. 1952) Director. A member of the Cartel, Baty was much influenced by expressionism, the Russian ballet and puppet theatre. ...

Baty, Gaston

Baty, Gaston (1885–1952)   Reference library

The Concise Oxford Companion to the Theatre (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
149 words

..., Gaston ( 1885–1952 ), French director, who in 1930 opened the Théâtre Montparnasse under his own name. Here he put on an imposing series of old and new plays, many of them foreign classics, and several dramatizations of novels, of which the best were probably his own version of Dostoevsky's Crime and Punishment and his own play Dulcinée ( 1938 ), based on an episode from Don Quixote . Baty was sometimes accused of subordinating the text of the play to the décor, which led him to substitute pictorial groupings for action; but this resulted in some...

Baty, Gaston

Baty, Gaston   Reference library

The Companion to Theatre and Performance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
174 words

..., Gaston ( 1885–1952 ) French director whose career began in 1919 in Paris, alongside *Gémier at the Cirque d'Hiver, *lighting the monumental production of Oedipus, King of Thebes . At the same time he began to direct, study theatre history, and developed a passion for *puppets . The Mask and the Censer ( 1926 ) presented his early ideas, including a polemic against the hegemony of literature and the spoken text. His theoretical and historical writings established him as the theoretician of the *Cartel des Quatre . From 1924 to 1928 he took...

Baty, Gaston

Baty, Gaston   Reference library

David G. Muller

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Theatre and Performance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
259 words

..., Gaston ( 1885–1952 ) French director and theorist. Baty studied art history in Germany, where he was greatly influenced by the productions of Fritz Erler . His own career began in 1919 in Paris , working alongside Firmin Gémier at the Cirque d'Hiver, where he was charged with lighting the monumental production of Oedipus, King of Thebes and where he began to direct his own productions. At the same time he was comprehensively studying theatre history and developed a passion for puppets . In 1926 he published a series of theoretical articles,...

Baty, Gaston

Baty, Gaston (26 May 1885)   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
93 words

..., Gaston (b. Pelussin, France , 26 May 1885 ; d. Pelussin , 13 Oct. 1952 ) Director . A member of the Cartel , Baty was much influenced by expressionism , the Russian ballet and puppet theatre . Not an actor himself (unlike the other Cartel directors), he disputed the primacy of actor and text and sought to integrate song, dance and set design with prose and verse dialogue. In 1951 he made a late and successful venture into the regions. Among his celebrated productions are Maya ( 1924 ), Phèdre ( 1940 ) and his adaptation of Crime and...

Gaston Baty

Gaston Baty  

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(b. Pelussin, France, 26 May 1885; d. Pelussin, 13 Oct. 1952)Director. A member of the Cartel, Baty was much influenced by expressionism, the Russian ballet and puppet theatre. Not ...
theatre of silence

theatre of silence  

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Also called ‘theatre of the unexpressed’. Term applied to a group of French writers of the 1920s, led by Gaston Baty, Jean-Jacques Bernard and Denys Amiel (1884–1977), who rejected traditional ...
Émile Legault

Émile Legault  

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(1906–83)French-Canadian director and manager, founder of the most influential troupe in Québec, Les Compagnons de Saint-Laurent (1937–52). Profoundly influenced by the ideas of Copeau, Dullin, Baty, ...
Le Cartel des Quatre

Le Cartel des Quatre  

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Association of four Parisian directors and their theatres which led the French inter-war avant-garde. Created in 1927 by two of Copeau's former pupils, Jouvet and Dullin, together with Pitoëff and ...
Gémier Firmin

Gémier Firmin  

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(b. Aubervilliers, France, 21 Feb. 1869; d. Paris, 26 Nov. 1933)Actor, director and teacher who made his début with Antoine (Théâtre Libre, then Théâtre de l'œuvre, where he played ...
Henri-René Lenormand

Henri-René Lenormand  

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(1882–1951)French playwright. Strongly influenced by the psychological dramas of Strindberg, Pirandello, and Chekhov, Lenormand felt theatre should elucidate the mysteries of the ‘inner life’. He ...
Louis Jouvet

Louis Jouvet  

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(1887–1951)French actor and producer.Jouvet was born in Brittany and began his career with touring companies; he made his Paris debut in The Brothers Karamazov in 1910. Subsequently he became ...
Comédie-Française

Comédie-Française  

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The French national theatre (used for both comedy and tragedy), in Paris, founded in 1680 by Louis XIV, and reconstituted by Napoleon I in 1803. It is organized as a cooperative society in which each ...
Cartel des Quatre, Le

Cartel des Quatre, Le   Reference library

Brian Singleton

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Theatre and Performance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
145 words

...Georges (and Ludmilla ) Pitoëff and Gaston Baty , the Cartel embraced Copeau's aim of respecting the text . One aim of the association was to increase their audience base by announcing their programmes in each other's publicity materials. The four directors each had their independent successes: Jouvet discovered a new playwright ( Jean Giraudoux ), Dullin trained a new generation of notable actors in memorable productions of the classics, the Pitoëffs brought a host of foreign plays to French audiences, and Baty experimented with the pictorial elements...

Jouvet, Louis

Jouvet, Louis   Reference library

Brian Singleton

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Theatre and Performance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
255 words

..., 1914 ). He left Copeau in 1922 for the Comédie des Champs-Élysées, where one of his earliest critical and commercial successes was as director of Jules Romains 's comedy Knock , and in which he played the lead role in over 1,400 performances. In 1927 , together with Gaston Baty , Georges Pitoëff , and Charles Dullin , Jouvet formed the Cartel des Quatre , a loose association of four theatres designed to share costs and protect common interests against the mainstream commercial theatre. His greatest triumph, however, was another association, this...

Gémier Firmin

Gémier Firmin (1869–1933)   Reference library

The Concise Oxford Companion to the Theatre (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
278 words

...of a 1,700-seat theatre. During the First World War he helped to cement the Franco-British alliance by producing Shakespeare in Paris, and his sense of public responsibility, heightened by an important meeting with Max Reinhardt , led him to attempt with the help of Gaston Baty a series of gigantic dramatic events at the Cirque d'Hiver. In 1920 he became manager of the first Théâtre National Populaire ; at the same time he was managing the Comédie des Champs-Élysées , and from 1921 to 1928 the Odéon . During this last period he...

Racine, Jean

Racine, Jean   Reference library

David G. Muller

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Theatre and Performance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
928 words

...than in traditional costume representing ancient Greece. This interpretative shift would be repeated often, as it was for Jean Meyer's Phèdre at the Comédie-Française ( 1959 ) and Gildas Bourdet's neorealist Britannicus for the Théâtre de la Salamandre ( 1979 ). Gaston Baty 's ‘Jansenist’ Phèdre at the Théâtre de Montparnasse ( 1940 ) attempted to evoke Knossos, Athens, Versailles, and Port-Royal simultaneously, with a complex interpretation that emphasized the title character 's fear of damnation rather than her incestuous desire. The...

Comédie-Française

Comédie-Française   Reference library

Virginia Scott

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Theatre and Performance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
2,018 words

...non-actor to become a sociétaire . In 1936 the great actor-director Louis Jouvet was invited to become the administrator, but rejected the offer. The man who accepted it, Édouard Bourdet , named four ‘exterior’ artists, Jouvet , Jacques Copeau , Charles Dullin , and Gaston Baty , as stage directors , the first official notice of the theatre artist who became pre-eminent in the twentieth century. Although some members of the troupe have continued to direct, the trend has been to use outside directors or to appoint French directors as administrators....

Paris

Paris   Reference library

Virginia Scott, Jan Clarke, W. D. Howarth, and David Bradby

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Theatre and Performance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
8,597 words

...by a few chosen students. Although he ceased to direct in the city, his influence and example continued to dominate the avant-garde theatre in Paris. Two of his former company members, Charles Dullin and Louis Jouvet , set up their own theatres, and joined together with Gaston Baty and Georges Pitoëff to form the Cartel des Quatre . The aim of this group, following Copeau, was to reinstate the vision of theatre as great art. Remembered mostly for its lively productions of the classical repertoire, the Cartel also revealed classics then little known,...

theatre of silence

theatre of silence   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
84 words

...of silence Also called ‘theatre of the unexpressed’. Term applied to a group of French writers of the 1920s, led by Gaston Baty , Jean-Jacques Bernard and Denys Amiel ( 1884–1977 ), who rejected traditional ‘literary’ theatre to emphasize, like Maurice Maeterlinck , a ‘hidden’ dialogue behind the spoken words. Chekhov was a precursor of those who exploited silence. Enlisted later were Beckett and Pinter , whose The Caretaker ( 1960 ) contains 143 pauses. Marvin Carlson See also subtext . M. Daniels , The French Drama of the Unspoken ...

Cartel

Cartel   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
133 words

...An informal alliance formed in 1927 between four eminent French theatre directors, Gaston Baty ( 1885–1952 ) of the Chimère and Théâtre de Montparnasse, Charles Dullin ( 1885–1949 ) of the Théâtre de l'Atelier, Louis Jouvet ( 1887–1951 ) of the Athénée and Comédie des Champs-Elysées and Georges Pitoeff ( 1885–1939 ) with his actress wife Ludmilla. It aimed to promote high standards of acting and production of foreign and contemporary French plays by such writers as Pirandello , Giraudoux and especially Chekhov . All four directors owed a...

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